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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.63 No.1 pp.63-66

A New Record of Bee Halictus hedini hedini (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) from South Korea

Yeonghyeok Yu, Hyojoong Kim*, Heungsik Lee1**
Animal Syst. Lab., Department of Biology, Kunsan National University, Gunsan, 54150, Rep. of Korea
1Department of Plant Quarantine, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea
January 22, 2024 February 15, 2024 February 20, 2024


Halictidae is a large group with more than 3,500 species found worldwide. They are called sweat bees because they are attracted to people's sweat. In this study, Halictus hedini hedini Blüthgen, 1934, belonging to Halictidae, is reported for the first time in Korea. Description, distribution, and illustration of this species are provided.

한국산 미기록 벌 Halictus hedini hedini (벌목: 꼬마꽃벌과)에 대한 보고

유영혁, 김효중*, 이흥식1**
군산대학교 생물학과 동물계통분류학연구실
1농림축산검역본부 식물검역기술개발센터


Halictidae 전 세계적으로 3,500종 이상 발견된 큰 그룹이며 사람들의 땀에 이끌리는 특성을 보여 Sweat bee라는 이름으로 불린다. 이번 연 구에서는 꼬마꽃벌과에 속하는 Halictus hedini hedini Blüthgen, 1934을 한국에서 처음으로 보고한다. 본 종의 기재, 분포정보, 그리고 삽화를 제공 한다.

    The family Halictidae (Hymenoptera) is a large taxonomic group containing more than 3,500 species, and commonly found in all regions of the world (Danforth et al., 2008). Species of the Halictidae tend to be attracted to people's sweat, so they are commonly called sweat bees. Sweat bees generally eat nectar and pollen and create habitats in the ground, clay soil, or riverbanks (Eaton and Kaufman, 2007). The genus Halictus Latreille, 1804 has 206 species recorded worldwide and is characterized by social polyethism, so it plays a significantly important role in the study of social behavior of insects (Murao and Gibbs, 2019;Soucy, 2002;Schwarz et al., 2007). In previous studies, two species (Halictus rubicundus Christ, 1791; Halictus tsingtouensis Strand, 1910) are recorded in South Korea. Halictus hedini hedini Blüthgen, 1934 is distributed in Japan, China, Russia, Serbia, and Kazakhstan (Pesenko, 2005), and was discovered in Korea for the first time in this study. This species has similar morphological characteristics with Halictus rubicundus (Murao and Gibbs, 2019). The description, diagnosis, distribution and illustrations are provided.

    Materials and Methods

    Materials of the halictid were collected by sweeping. The species studied are deposited in Kunsan National University (KSNU). For information related to species identification, we referred to the paper in Murao and Gibbs, 2019. The terminology used for morphological characters follows Pesenko (2005). For observation and photography, LEICA DMC2900 digital camera and LEICA M205 C microscope (Leica Geosystems AG, Germany) were used. Images were stacked by using Helicon software (Helicon Soft, Ukraine).

    Systematic Accounts

    Family Halictidae Thomson, 1869

    Subfamily Halictinae Thomson 1869

    Genus Halictus Latreille, 1804

    Halictus Latreille, 1804: 84(85): 238

    Lampralictus Pesenko, 1984: 63(2)

    Halictus hedini hedini Blüthgen, 1934 (Fig. 1A-F) 주름꼬마 꽃벌(신칭)

    Halictus hedini hedini Blüthgen, 1934 : 27 (13): 5-6


    Morphology. Female Body. Length of body 11.95 mm, length of forewing 8.09 mm, antennae with 12 segments (Fig. 1A, C). Male. Antennae with 13 segments and long more than more than female.

    Head. Antennae dark brown; antennae densely covered short setae; scape covered with yellowish setae and scape basal long setae present (Fig. 1B), length of head 0.78× width of head, frons and clypeus flat and rough, malar space narrow, mandible well-developed and with few setae, maxillary palp with 6 segments and 0.32× length of head, occipital carina absent. Mesosoma. Punctate with setae; parapsidal line present, tegula glossy with yellowish setae, axilla densely covered whitish setae, propodeal triangle faintly present, length of mesosoma 0.68× length of metasoma (Fig. 1E). Hind leg. Dark black with yellowish setae; length of hind leg fumer 0.92× length of hind leg tibia, tibial spurs developed. Wing. Forewing; prestigma absent; length of stigma 0.18× length of forewing, radius hardened, marginal cell and submarginal cell completely present (Fig. 1C). Metasoma. Tergum segments end covered whitish setae; rough and punctures; length of tergum1 1.4× length of tergum1 (Fig. 1F).

    Diagnosis.Halictus hedini hedini differs from Halictus hedini hebeiensis by the dark legs of the female. Halictus hedini hedini differs from the similar species Halictus rubicundus in that the first tergum is rough and has deep punctures (Pesenko and Yanru, 1997). Halictus tsingtouensis differs from Propodeum punctate on lateral and posterior surfaces in female and male genal area deeply concave; male second flagellomere approximately 2.4× first flagellomere (Murao and Gibbs, 2019).

    Distribution. South Korea (new record), China, Mongolia, Japan, Russia, Siberia, Kazakhstan (Murao and Gibbs, 2019).

    Specimens examined. South Korea, 1♂, Nohyeong-dong, Jeju-si, 18.Ⅶ.2001, Heungsik Lee; 1♂, Mt. Gariwang, Jeongsun- eup, Jeongsun-gun, Gangwon-do, 30.Ⅶ.2013, Heungsik Lee; 1♂, Mt. Baekam, Hongcheon-gun, Gangwon-do, 24. Ⅴ.2002, Heungsik Lee; 1♀, Mt. Odae, Daegwallyeong-myeon, Pyeongchang-gun, Gangwon-do, 27.Ⅶ.2001, Heungsik Lee.

    Key to Japanese Species of Halictus (Pesenko, 2005)

    1. ♂♀: metapostnotum coarser rugose; metasomal terga coarser (puncture diameter on disc of T2, 12–20 μm) and sparser punctate, mesoscutum and metasomal terga denser punctate, shagreened on interspaces, mat. ♂: genal area deeply concave, with a carina along outer margin of depression; flagellomeres convex on lower side, covered with dense short hairs forming distal and proximal bands divided by bare area about 1/2–1/3 length of segment; metasoma nearly cylindrical, hair band on T3 interrupted; dorsomedial hair tassel of gonostylus twice narrower and sparser. ♀: head rounded in frontal view, about as high as wide.· ······H. (Monilapis) tsingtouensis

      • - ♂♀: metapostnotum finer rugulose; metasomal terga finely and densely punctate. pubescence of head and mesosoma yellowish: yellowish white in male, yellowish fuscous in female; propodeum about 0.7 times as long as scutellum. ♂: genal area convex, without carina; flagellomeres nearly cylindrical, covered with inconspicuous hair fringe (except for H. hedini, in which flagellum provided with a fringe of short hairs); metasoma flattened. T5 without posterior band; lower gonostylus short, pointed, spinelike, hairless ♀: relative height of head variable.············ ··························································· 2

    2. ♂♀: T1 at least twice finer punctate, punctures superficial and indistinct; body length 9.5-11.0 mm. ♂: pubescence of flagellum inconspicuous. ♀: T5 around longitudinal bar area with grayish fuscous or dark fuscous pubescence ······· H. (Protohalictus) rubicundus

      • - ♂♀: T1 coarsely punctate, punctures deep; body length 11.5-13.0 mm. ♂: flagellum provided with a fringe of short eyelash-like hairs 0.3-0.5 times as long as flagellomeres diameter. ♀: T5 around longitudinal bar area with rusty-brown pubescence. legs dark (black or dark fuscous) entirely or hind tibia and tarsus dark brownish orange ···· ······································H. (Protohalictus) hedini hedini


    This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR202304203).

    Statements for Authorship Position & Contribution

    • Yu, Y.: Kunsan National University, Student in Ph.D; Designed the research, wrote the manuscript

    • Kim, H.: Kunsan National University, Professor, Designed the research

    • Lee, H.: Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Ph.D; Collected and designed the research

    All authors read and approved the manuscript.



    Habitus of Halictus hedini hedini Blüthgen, 1934: A, whole body in lateral view; B, antenna; C, forewing; D, head; E, mesosoma in dorsal view; F, metasoma in dorsal view.



    1. Danforth, B.N. , Eardley, C. , Packer, L. , Walker, K. , Pauly, A. , Randrianambinintsoa, F.J. ,2008. Phylogeny of Halictidae with an emphasis on endemic African Halictinae. Apidologie 39, 86-101.
    2. Eaton, E.R. , Kaufman, K. ,2007. Kaufman field guide to insects of North America, 1th ed., Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston.
    3. Murao, R. , Gibbs, J. ,2019. Halictus hedini hedini (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) newly recorded from Japan, revealed by DNA barcoding and morphology. J. Melittology. 84, 1-8.
    4. Pesenko, Y.A. ,2005. Contributions to the halictid fauna of the Eastern Palaearctic region: genus Halictus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Halictidae, Halictinae). Far. East. Entomol. 150, 1-24.
    5. Pesenko, Y.A. , Yanru, W. ,1997. A study on Chinese bees of the genus Halictus s. str. with descriptions of a new species and a new subspecies (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Kun Chong xue bao. Acta. Entomol. Sin. 40, 202-206.
    6. Schwarz, M.P. , Richards, M.H. , Danforth, B.N. ,2007. Changing paradigms in insect social evolution: insights from halictine and allodapine bees. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 52, 127-150.
    7. Soucy, S.L. 2002. Nesting biology and socially polymorphic behavior of the sweat bee Halictus rubicundus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95, 57-65.

    Vol. 40 No. 4 (2022.12)

    Journal Abbreviation Korean J. Appl. Entomol.
    Frequency Quarterly
    Doi Prefix 10.5656/KSAE
    Year of Launching 1962
    Publisher Korean Society of Applied Entomology
    Indexed/Tracked/Covered By