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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.62 No.4 pp.365-369

A New Record of Parasitic Wasp, Bitomus indicus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae), from South Korea

Yunjong Han, Hyojoong Kim*
Animal Systematics Lab., Department of Biology, Kunsan National University, Gunsan 54150, Korea
November 16, 2023 November 21, 2023 November 28, 2023


The genus Bitomus Szepligeti, 1910 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) is known to parasitize in mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae), of which four species are recorded in Korea. Bitomus was revised by Fischer (1987, 1994) and recently treated by Papp (1978, 1981) in Korea. Bitomus is distinguished from other genera by the immovably joined second-third or fourth metasomal tergites, forming a carapace. In this study, Bitomus indicus is recognized for the first time in Korea. This study provides a diagnosis, description, distribution, and diagnostic illustrations.

한국산 미기록종 Bitomus indicus 에 대한 보고

한윤종, 김효중*
군산대학교 생명과학과 동물계통분류학연구실


굴파리과에 기생하는 종으로 알려진 Bitomus (갗고치벌속)는 한국에 4종 보고되어있다. Bitomus는 Fischer (1987, 1994)에 의해 개정되었 고, Papp (1978, 1981)에 의해 한국에서 보고되었다. Bitomus는 움직이지 않게 연결된 마치 껍질과 같은 2-3번째 또는 4번째 복부마디로 다른 속들 과 구별된다. 본 조사연구 결과로 Bitomus indicus를 국내 최초로 보고한다. 기술과 진단형질도판을 수록한다.

    The subfamily Opiinae Blanchard, 1845, a large and wellknown koinobiont endoparasitoid group within cyclostome wasp, is distributed worldwide and comprises over 2,000 described valid species (Yu et al., 2016). Some members of Opiinae attack agricultural pest such as Agromyzidae (mining flies) and Tephritidae (fruit-flies), making them valuable contributors to biological control (Ovruski et al., 2000;Wharton, 1997).

    Papp (1978, 1981) reported Bitomus agnesae, B. braconinus, B. hemicoriaceus and B. novohebridicus from North Korea (National Species List of South Korea; NIBR, 2020) and transferred Bitomus from Cheloninae into Opiinae. The genus Bitomus was placed in the subfamily Cheloninae due to the formation of carapace tergites. However, due to distinct morphological characteristics, such as differences in wing venation and the form of the head, particularly the mandible, Bitomus has been transferred to the subfamily Opiinae (Papp, 1978). In Opiinae, Bitomus differs from other genera by having the second-third or fourth tergites immovably joined, forming a carapace. In this study, we newly reported Bitomus indicus from South Korea, providing a diagnosis, description, and illustrations of its diagnostic characteristics.

    Materials and methods

    The specimen was collected by using a Malaise trap in campus of Kunsan National University (KSNU) and conserved in alcohol 80%. This specimen is deposited in Kunsan National University (KSNU). For identification of the subfamily Opiinae, see van Achterberg (1990, 1993, 1997); for references to the Opiinae, see Yu et al. (2016).

    Morphological terminology follows van Achterberg (1988, 1993), including the abbreviations for the wing venation. Measurements are taken as indicated by van Achterberg (1988); for the length and the width of a body part the maximum length and width is taken, unless otherwise indicated. The length of the mesosoma is measured from the anterior border of the mesoscutum to the apex of the propodeum and of the first tergite from the posterior border of the adductor to the medio-posterior margin of the tergite.

    Observations, photographic images, and descriptions were made either with a LEICA DMC2900 digital camera or with a LEICA M205 C microscope (Leica Geosystems AG). The photos were stacked with Helicon Focus v.7 software (Helicon Soft, Kharkiv, Ukraine).

    Bitomus indicus (Samiuddin et al., 2010) is deposited in the Kunsan National University (KSNU) at Gusan.

    Systematic Accounts

    Family Braconidae Nees von Esenbeck, 1811

    Subfamily Opiinae Blanchard, 1845

    Genus BitomusSzépligeti, 1910 갗고치벌속(신칭)

    Bitomus indicusSamiuddin, 2010 갗인디고치벌(신칭)(Figs A–E)

    Bitomus indicusSamiuddin et al., 2010: 770–772.

    Key to Korean species of the genus Bitomus Szepligeti

    • Notes. The number of included species for Korea is based on t he l ist by Yu et al. (2016), t he Nat ional Species List of South Korea (2020) and this study.

    • 1. Notauli present on mesoscutal disc completely and deeply; [hypoclypeal depression absent; mesopleuron widely setose; pleural sulcus crenulate] ························ ····································· B. braconinusSzépligeti, 1910

    • - Notauli absent on mesoscutal disc entirely or at least present on anterior half of mesoscutal disc ··················· 2

    • 2. Hypoclypeal depression present; [ventral margin of mandible straight; vein r of fore wing short; frons, mesoscutum, scutellum, metasoma or all these parts rater densely setose or vein 3-SR of fore wing twice longer than vein 2-SR] ········································ B. agnesaePapp, 1981

    • - Hypoclypeal depression absent··· ··································· 3

    • 3. Precoxal sulcus short, not reaching anterior and posterior margins of mesopleuron; second metasomal tergite and following tergites at least strongly striate-rugose; [propodeum with strong and curved transverse carinae; medio-longitudinal carina of propodeum variable; body, reddish brown] ·········· B. novohebridicus (Fischer, 1966)

    • - Precoxal sulcus reaching anterior or anterior and posterior margins of mesopleuron; second tergite and following tergites at least weakly granulate or sculptured ············ 4

    • 4. Clypeus 2x wider than its maximum height; mesonotum 1.5x wider than its length; propodeum with a curved cross carinae ······················· B. hemicoriaceus (Fischer, 1966)

    • - Clypeus 1.3x wider than its maximum height; mesonotum 0.8x as wide as its length; propodeum with a short medio-longitudinal carina anteriorly ································ ············································· B. indicusSamiuddin, 2010

    Specimens examined. South Korea, 1♂ (KSNU): Kunsan National University, Miryong-dong, Gunsan, Jeonbok, 35°56' 28.2"N, 126°40'48.9"E, 15. IX. 2015–14. X. 2015, Hyojoong Kim leg.

    Diagnosis. Antenna with 25 segments, apical antenna dark brown, but basal antenna yellowish-brown; temple straightly narrowed and eye 1.9 times longer than temple in dorsal view; clypeus 1.5 times wider than its maximum height, and its ventral margin strongly protruding downward (Fig. 1B); mesoscutum and scutellum evenly punctate and densely setose (Fig. 1D); propleuron smooth subposteriorly (Fig. 1A); precoxal sulcus wide, crenulate and nearly reaching postpectal carina (Fig. 1A); postpectal carina crenulate ventro-medially (Fig. 1F); notauli largely absent on disc (Fig. 1D); propodeum largely vermiculate-granulate with medium-sized medio-longitudinal carina anteriorly and transverse carinae, area behind the carina large and flabellate, strongly angulate in lateral view (Figs 1D, G); pterostigma wide triangular (Fig. 1E); vein m-cu of fore wing distinctly postfurcal; first tergite widened posteriorly (nearly 0.8 times longer than its apical width in ♂), its surface coarsely striate with longitudinal carinae (Figs 1D, G); second suture obsolescent; second and third tergites evenly and densely granulate; third tergite superficially densely granulate except its medio-apically area and following tergites smooth (Fig. 1G).

    Description. Male; length of body 2.3 mm, of fore wing 2.2 mm and of antenna about 2.3 mm.

    Head (Figs. 1B, C): Antenna with 25 segments; third segment 1.1 times longer than fourth segment, 1.9 times longer than its width (Fig. 1C); depression between antennal sockets; eye in dorsal view 1.9 times longer than temple; eye marginal line near occipital carina slightly curved in lateral view (Fig. 1A); vertex and frons shiny, punctate and short setose; median keel on frons absent, but protruding; clypeus 1.5 times wider than its maximum height (Fig. 1B); clypeus slightly convex with setose, ventral margin of clypeus strongly pointed downward (Fig. 1B); hypoclypeal depression largely absent or narrowly present (Fig. 1B); maxillary palp 0.7 times as long as height of head; malar sulcus present (Figs 1A, B); occipital carina absent dorsally (Fig. 1D); mandible long and asymmetrical, not widened basally (Fig. 1B). Mesosoma (Figs. 1D, F): Mesosoma 1.3 times longer than its high; pronope absent, but with transverse crenulated groove (Fig. 1D); propleuron largely rugose and smooth subposteriorly, with setose (Fig. 1A); mesopleuron largely smooth, but precoxal sulcus nearly starting epicnemial area and reaching postpectal carina, crenulate and wide (Fig. 1A); mesosternum densely setose; postpectal carina crenulate ventro-medially (Fig. 1F); pronotal side crenulaterugulose with carinae; mesolpeural sulcus crenulate; metapleuron largely reticulate-rugulose, but anteriorly carina of metapleuron large and crenulate; notauli absent on disc except for a pair of short deep crenulate impressions anteriorly (Fig. 1D); mesoscutum and scutellum shiny and punctate, evenly short setose (Fig. 1D); medio-posterior depression of mesoscutum small, deep and round-shaped (Fig. 1D); scutellar sulcus large and distinctly crenulate; scutellum rather flat; propodeum largely vermiculate-granulate with medium-sized mediolongitudinal carina anteriorly and transverse carinae, area in front of the carina punctate with setose and area behind the carina large and steeply sloping just like flabellate in lateral view (Figs 1D, G). Wing (Fig. 1E): Fore wing: pterostigma wide triangular, gradually narrowed apically; vein 1-SR+M straight; vein 2-SR oblique; vein 3-SR sublinear with vein r, distinctly longer than vein 2-SR(1.6 times longer than vein 2-SR) and subparallel-sided with vein 2-M (Fig. 1E); vein SR1 slightly curved; r:3-SR:SR1 = 3:14:23; vein m-cu distinctly postfurcal; second submarginal cell elongated; vein CU1b short (Fig. 1E); first subdiscal cell closed; Hind wing: vein m-cu absent; vein 1r-m oblique, 0.8 times as long as vein 1-M. Legs (Fig. 1A): Hind femur 4.4 times longer than its width (Fig. 1A). Metasoma (Fig. 1G): First tergite nearly 0.8 times as long as its apical width, its surface coarsely striate with longitudinal carinae and slightly convex medially in lateral view; dorsope absent; second metasomal suture obsolescent; second tergite to third tergites densely granulate and with sparsely setose; third tergite superficially densely granulate except smooth area medio-apically and following tergites smooth and more or less retracted under third tergite (Fig. 1G). Colour (Fig. 1A). Generally black; apical of antenna, mandible and vein of wings, dark brown; base of antenna, yellowish-brown; palps and legs, light yellow.

    Distribution. South Korea (new, Jeonbok Prov.), India.

    Biology. Unknown.


    This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR202304203, NIBR202333201). It was also supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2022R1A2C1091308).

    Statements for Authorship Position & Contribution

    • Han, Y.: Kunsan National University, Student in Ph.D; Designed the research, wrote the manuscript and conducted the experiments

    • Kim, H.: Kunsan National University, Professor, Ph.D; Examined specimens and designed the research

    All authors read and approved the manuscript.


    Habitus of Bitomus indicus Samiuddin et al., 2010: A, whole body in lateral view; B, head in front view; C, antenna; D, mesosoma in dorsal view; E, wings; F, mesosoma in ventral view (arrow postpectal carina); G, metasoma in dorsal view.


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    Vol. 40 No. 4 (2022.12)

    Journal Abbreviation Korean J. Appl. Entomol.
    Frequency Quarterly
    Doi Prefix 10.5656/KSAE
    Year of Launching 1962
    Publisher Korean Society of Applied Entomology
    Indexed/Tracked/Covered By