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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.59 No.2 pp.79-81
DOI : https://doi.org/10.5656/KSAE.2020.02.0.011

First Record of Discothyrea sauteri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Proceratiinae) from Korea

Dong Oh Shin1, Sun Woo Yoon1, Dong Pyeo Lyu*
Department of Forest sciences, Sangji University, Wonju 26339, Korea
1Pureunsol Ant Research Center, Daegu 42814, Korea
*Corresponding author:myrmicinae@sangji.ac.kr
February 4, 2020 February 24, 2020 March 5, 2020

Abstract


The species, Discothyrea sauteri Forel, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Proceratiinae), was documented for the first time in Korea. In this study, the morphological characteristics, representative images of this species, and a taxonomic key of the genera of the Korean Proceratiinae are provided.



한국미기록종 Discothyrea sauteri Forel(벌목: 개미과: 배굽은침개미아과)의 보고

신 동오1, 윤 선우1, 류 동표*
상지대학교 산림과학과
1푸른솔개미연구센터

초록


한국산 개미과 배굽은침개미아과의 미기록종인 Discothyrea sauteri Forel을 보고한다. 종에 대한 형질과 사진, 한국산 배굽은침개미아과 속 검색표를 제공한다.



    The members of the genus Discothyrea are relatively cryptic ants, which form small colonies (10-20 workers), and are mainly found in rotten wood, leaf litter, and under the stones (Brown, 1958). Brown (1958) first reported that they could be specialized predators of arthropod eggs, since their closely related genus Proceratium exhibits such a trophic specialization, and was further able to provide evidence for his theory on the basis of the research conducted by him on an Australian Discothyrea species (Brown, 1958). These ants were shown to prefer spider eggs, although one species was also located in the nests of other ants (Brown, 1980). Queens of one African species formed their nests within the spider egg sacks, which was shown to provide both food and lodging for the first generation of workers (Dejean and Dejean, 1998). In this paper, the genus Discothyrea Roger and Discothyrea sauteri Forel are recorded for the first time. In this study, the morphological characteristics of these species, and a taxonomic key of the genera of the Korean Proceratiinae are provided.

    Materials and Methods

    The specimens examined in this study were deposited at Sangji University, South Korea. The images of these specimens were captured using the Leica DMS 1000 microscope and the S8AP0 microscope (Leica Microsystem, Germany). Images were further enhanced and analyzed using the Leica Application Suite v. 4.9 (Leica Microsystems) and Deltabio MOT Leica software v. 4.0 to obtain multi-focus images. The terminology used to describe the worker individuals was followed as described by Bolton (2003).

    The following abbreviations for insect castes and provinces in which specimens were collected and examined were used: q (queen); w (worker); TL (type locality); and JJ (Jeju-do).

    Results

    Systematic accounts

    Family Formicidae Latreille, 1809 개미과

    Subfamily Proceratiinae Emery, 1895 배굽은침개미아과

    Key to the Genera of Korean Proceratiinae

    1. Apical segment of antenna extremely large and bulbous; antennal sockets on shelf protruding over mandibles ····· ··································································· Discothyrea

    • - Apical segment of antenna moderately enlarged, but not bulbous; antennal sockets not protruding over mandibles ·································································· Proceratium

    Genus DiscothyreaRoger, 1863

    Discothyrea: Roger, J., 1863: 176. Type-species: Discothyrea testacea Roger.

    ProdiscothyreaWheeler, W.M., 1916: 33. Type-species: Prodiscothyrea velutina Wheeler.

    Pseudosysphincta Arnold, 1916: 161. Type-species: Pseudosysphincta poweri Arnold.

    Diagnosis. Small strong ants are the ones with notable excessive expansion of their apical antennal segment. The antennal segments are segmented at least 6–12 times. Mandibles are without teeth and are overhanging with the help of a projecting clypeus. Thorax is short and sutureless dorsally (Brown, 1958;Bolton, 1994)

    Discothyrea sauteriForel, 1912 달마배굽은침개미(신칭)

    Discothyrea globus var. sauteri Forel, 1912: 47 (w.q.). TL: Taiwan.

    Discothyrea sauteri- Brown, 1958: 253 (Raised to species).

    Description: Worker ants. (fig. 1A and C): Head shape is subglobose; occipital carina is low but distinct, which is extended up to the ventral surface. Mandibles are small and subtriangular. Masticatory margin is edentate, in which the inner surface is with a series of minute peg- . Palp formula is usually 4; 4 or 4; 3 (Brown, 1958). Clypeus is fused to the frontal region medially, forming a subrectangular projection anteriorly, which partly covers the mandibles. Frontal carinae are fused together to form a median longitudinal platform, with distinct antennal scrobes. Antennal insertion is almost exposed and is situated anteriorly. Antennal segments vary in number but are normally less than 10; they are scape short, clavate, and somewhat depressed dorsoventrally. Apical segments are large and bulbous, mostly equal to or longer than the total length of the funiculus. Compound eyes are small to minute and are situated anterior to the middle of the sides of the head.

    Alitrunk is compact, which lacks any dorsal sutures, with short and flattened nodes. They are normally located at the posterior declivity of propodeum concave and are weakly marginate, with a pair of angulate corners or teeth situated dorsoposteriorly, whereas the ventral processes are absent. Legs are short and robust, and the tibial spurs of all the legs are pectinate. Petiole is small, compressed anteroposteriorly, and broadly attached to the gaster, whereas the subpetiolar processes are low and rounded. Anterior margins of the first gastric sternum are weakly developed. First and second gastric terga are large and swollen; gastric apex is directed forward, and the sting is well developed.

    Material examined: Korea: 1w, Donneko, Seogwipo, JJ, 18. Ⅵ. 2019. (SW Yoon & DO Shin); 1w, Donneko, Seogwipo, 19. Ⅵ. 2019. (DP Lyu.)

    Distribution: Korea (new record), Taiwan, China, Japan.

    Acknowledgements

    This study was supported by the Sangji University Research Fund 2018.

    KSAE-59-2-79_F1.gif

    Discothyrea sauteri Forel. A: frontal view of the head; B: lateral view of the body; C: lateral view of the head; D: Dorsal view of the body.

    Reference

    1. Arnold, G. 1916. A monograph of the formicidae of South Africa. Part II. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 14, 159-270.
    2. Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 222.
    3. Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71, 370.
    4. Brown, W.L. Jr. 1958. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. II. Tribe Ectatommini (Hymenoptera). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 118, 173-362.
    5. Brown, W.L. Jr. 1980. A remarkable new species of Proceratium, with dietary and other notes on the genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche 86, 337-346.
    6. Dejean, A. , Dejean, A. 1998. How a ponerine ant acquired the most evolved mode of colony foundation. Insectes Soc. 45, 343-346.
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    8. Forel, A. 1912. H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute. Formicidae (Hym.). Entomol. Mitt. 1, 45-61.
    9. Latreille, P.A. 1809. Genera crustaceorum et insectorum secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimus explicata. Tomus4. Parisiis et Argentorati [=Paris and Strasbourg]: A. Koenig, 399 pp.
    10. Roger, J. 1863. Die neu aufgeführten Gattungen und Arten meines Formiciden-Verzeichnisses, nebst Ergänzung einiger früher gegeben Beschreibungen. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7, 131–214.
    11. Wheeler, W. M. 1916. Prodiscothyrea, a new genus of ponerine ants from Queensland. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 40, 33-37.