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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.59 No.1 pp.65-70
DOI : https://doi.org/10.5656/KSAE.2020.02.0.010

Two Species of the Genus Strumigenys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) New to Korea

Dong Oh Shin, Dong Pyeo Lyu1*
Pureunsol Ant Research Center, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 42814, Korea
1Department of Forest Sciences, Sangji University, Wonju, Gangwon 26339, Korea
Corresponding author:myrmicinae@sangji.ac.kr
February 4, 2020 February 12, 2020 February 20, 2020

Abstract


Two species of the genus Strumigenys Smith, 1860: S. alecto (Bolton, 2000) and S. solifontis Brown, 1949b, were recorded in Korea for the first time. Morphological characteristics of workers of these two species are described.



개미과 비늘개미속의 한국 미기록 2종 보고

신 동오, 류 동표1*
푸른솔개미연구센터
1상지대학교 산림과학과

초록


한국산 개미과 비늘개미속의 2미기록종인 Strumigenys alectoStrumigenys solifontis가 분포함을 보고한다. 2 종의 일개미에 대한 형질 과 사진을 제공한다.



    Strumigenys is an exceptionally diverse genus of myrmicine ants with more than 840 described species, the majority of which occur in the tropics and subtropics (Bolton, 2000) where they, typically inhabit and forage in moist terrestrial microhabitats such as leaf litter, soil, or rotting wood (Creighton, 1937;Wilson, 1953). This genus is characterized by long linear mandibles with one to few spiniform teeth at the apices; the antennae show the typical pattern of six segments, with very small funicular segments II and III and a long, masive apical segment. All species in this genus possess some sort of spongiform appendages on at least the postpetiole, and all species have epinotal teeth, lamellae, or both (Brown, 1949b). Strumigenys species with long-mandibles are referred to as trap-jaw ants on account of their mandibles’ spring-loading mechanism which snaps shut by the touch of a suitable prey. Trap-jaw mechanisms have evolved in at least nine genera of three subfamilies of ants; however, the vast majority of trap-jaw ant species belong to the genus Strumigenys (Larabee and Suarez, 2014).

    Many species previously placed in distinct genera owing to differences in jaw shape or antennal segments (Bolton, 2000) are now assigned to Strumigenys based on molecular evidence of shared ancestry (Ward et al., 2015). The taxonomy within the genus Strumigenys has been extensively investigated but is not universally agreed upon (Baroni Urbani and de Andrade, 2007). Comprehensive lists of taxonomic studies on Strumigenys were produced by Bolton (2000) and by Baroni Urbani and de Andrade (2007).

    In the current study, Strumigenys alecto (Bolton) and Strumigenys solifontis Brown were recorded in Korea for the first time. Morphological characteristics of workers of these two species are described.

    Materials and Methods

    The specimens examined in this study were deposited at Sangji University, South Korea. Specimens were photographed using a Leica DMS 1000 microscope and an S8AP0 microscope (Leica Microsystem, Germany). Images were captured using Leica Application Suite v. 4.9 (Leica Microsystems) and Deltabio MOT Leica software v. 4.0 to produce multi-focus images. The terminology used to describe worker individuals followed Bolton (2003).

    The following abbreviations for insect castes and provinces in which specimens were collected and examined were used: Q (queen), w (worker), TL (type locality), GB (Gyeonsangbuk-do), and GN (Gyeonsangnam-do).

    Results

    Taxonomic accounts

    Family Formicidae Latreille, 1809 개미과

    Formicariae Latreille, 1809: 124. Type-genus: Formica Linnaeus, 1758: 579.

    Subfamily Myrmicinae Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 두마디개미아과

    Genus Strumigenys Smith, 1860 비늘개미속

    Type-species: Strumigenys mandibularis Smith, 1860: 72.

    Labidogenys: Roger, 1862: 249. Type species: Labidogenys lyroessa Roger.

    Pyramica Roger, 1862: 251. Type species: Pyramica gundlachi Roger.

    CephaloxysSmith, F. 1865: 76. Type-species: Cephaloxys capitata Smith.

    Epitritus Emery, 1869a: 136. Type-species: Epitritus argiolus Emery

    Trichoscapa Emery, 1869b: 24. Type-species: Strumigenys (Trichoscapa) membranifera Emery

    Pentastruma Forel, 1912: 50. Type-species: Pentastruma sauteri Forel

    GlamyromyrmexWheeler, W.M. 1915: 487. Type-species: Glamyromyrmex beebei Wheeler

    CodiomyrmexWheeler, W.M. 1916: 326. Type-species: Codiomyrmex thaxteri Wheeler

    Tingimyrmex Mann, 1926: 104. Type-species: Strumigenys (Tingimyrmex) mirabilis Mann

    Codioxenus Santschi, 1931: 278. Type-species: Epitritus (Codioxenus) simulans Santschi

    Proscopomyrmex Patrizi, 1946: 294. Type-species: Proscopomyrmex londianensis Patrizi.

    Smithistruma Brown, 1948: 104. Type-species: Cephaloxys capitata Smith.

    Weberistruma Brown, 1948: 106. Type-species: Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) leptothrix Brown.

    Wessonistruma Brown, 1948: 106. Type-species: Strumigenys pergandei Brown.

    Serrastruma Brown, 1948: 107. Type-species: Strumigenys simoni Brown.

    Neostruma Brown, 1948: 111. Type-species: Strumigenys crassicornis Brown.

    Dorisidris Brown, 1948: 116. Type-species: Strumigenys (Codiomyrmex) nitens Brown.

    Miccostruma Brown, 1948: 123. Type-species: Epitritus mandibularis Brown.

    Eneria Donisthorpe, 1948: 598. Type-species: Eneria excisa Donisthorpe.

    Quadristruma Brown, 1949a: 47. Type-species: Epitritus emmae Brown.

    Kyidris Brown, 1949b: 3. Type-species: Kyidris mutica Brown.

    Chelystruma Brown, 1950: 32. Type-species: Glamyromyrmex (Chelystruma) lilloana Brown.

    Polyhomoa Azuma, 1950: 36. Type-species: Polyhomoa itoi Azuma

    Borgmeierita Brown, 1953: 23. Type-species: Codiomyrmex excisus Brown.

    Platystruma Brown, 1953: 112. Type-species: Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) depressiceps Brown.

    Gymnomyrmex Borgmeier, 1954: 279. Type-species: Gymnomyrmex splendens Borgmeier

    Dysedrognathus Taylor, 1968: 132. Type-species: Dysedrognathus extemenus Taylor

    Asketogenys Brown, 1972: 23. Type-species: Asketogenys acubecca Brown.

    Cladarogenys Brown, 1976: 33. Type-species: Cladarogenys lasia Brown.

    Diagnosis. Head triangular, antennae 6-segmented, antennal club 2-segmented. Compound eyes located at the lower margin of the antennal scrobes. Mandibles linear and tipped with apical fork or triangular and armed with numerous denticles. Propodeum armed with spines or teeth. Petiole 2-segmented. Spongiform tissue attached to at least some portion of the petiole. Hairs appearing flagellate or spatulate on at least some portion of the head or body.

    Strumigenys alecto (Bolton, 2000) (Fig. 1) 가는털톱 니비늘개미(신칭)

    Pyramica alecto Bolton, 2000: 429 (w.) TL: Japan.

    Worker. In full-face view, the dorsolateral margins of the head with sparse, very short, straight laterally projecting hairs; two to three hairs project from the antennal scrobe margin and four to six from the occipital lobe margin. Antennal scape with fine apically-directed narrowly spatulate hairs only, without long simple hairs. In lateral view, the pronotal dorsum with sparse, short standing hairs present from immediately in frontal view of the highest point of the vertex to the occipital margin, and with very few dorsolaterally. Compound eyes with 4 ommatidia in the longest row. Lateral pronotum not sharply marginate; on the anterior half, the dorsum is rounded broadly and evenly into the sides, posteriorly more narrowly rounded to bluntly angular. Hairs on pronotum sparse, short, and stubbly; mesonotum with three to four pairs of short erect simple hairs. Petiole, postpetiole, and first gastral tergite with standing hairs. Propodeum smooth, except for some weak punctulate sculpture above the level of the propodeal spiracle. Propodeum armed with a pair of short triangular teeth with lamellae; no triangular or spiniform propodeal lobes at the base of the declivity. Middle and hind tibiae with projecting suberect to subdecumbent straight simple hairs. In lateral view, petiole node with a short, near-vertical anterior face. In lateral view, spongiform lobe of petiole elongate, extended anteriorly almost to the level of the anterior node. Postpetiole distinctly broader than long on the dorsum; smooth and shining.

    Material examined: [Korea] 6w, Geojehuyang, GN, 12. Ⅵ.2019. (SW Yoon & DO Shin).

    Distribution: Korea (new record), Japan.

    Strumigenys solifontis Brown, 1949b (Fig. 2) 긴허리 비늘개미(신칭)

    Strumigenys (Strumigenys) solifontis Brown, 1949b: 18 (w.Q.) TL: Japan.

    Worker. Body length 3.15 mm. Head longer than in S. lewisi, also slightly less convex above and generally more dorsoventrally depressed. Antennae longer and slender; antennal scape 0.50 mm, funicular segments 0.64 mm. Compound eyes less convex. Mandibles longer and slightly more robust. The preapical tooth is long and acute. Trunk very slender, with dorsal profile from lateral view broadly and rather strongly concave from the summit of the convexly raised promesonotum to the propodeal teeth and much more concave. Long erect hairs on the alitrunk more numerous, in five to six pairs, varying in length; the long pair gracing the humeri stiff and not attenuated. Entire dorsal alitrunk finely and densely punctate to reticulate-punctate except for anterior half of propodeal dorsum which is usually smooth. Lamella on propodeal declivity becoming broader basally, its posterior margin distinctly convex on the lower half. Spongiform appendages on petiole and postpetiole; the lateral lobes on the petiole reaching only halfway or slightly higher on the sides of the node. With petiole in profile, the lateral spongiform lobe terminates at about the mid-length of the node, not reaching the anterior face of the node. Postpetiole slightly broader than in S. lewisi, about half as broad as long. Petiolar node finely and densely punctate to reticulate-punctate; postpetiole smooth. Erect hairs on first gastral tergite not restricted to a transverse row near base and another near apex. Basigastral costulae distinct on first gastral tergite.

    Material examined. [Korea] 13w, Mancheondong, Daegu, GB, 23.Ⅸ.2016. (DP Lyu & DO Shin); 2Q, 25w, Hyeongjebong, Daegu, GB, 27.Ⅷ.2018. (SW Yoon & DO Shin); 5Q, 25w, Milyang, KN, 01.Ⅵ.2018. (SW Yoon & DO Shin); 2Q, 20w, Jangcheok valley, Kimhae, KN, 01.Ⅵ.2018. (SW Yoon & DO Shin); 7Q, 30w, Naechol autocamp, Geoje, KN, 16. Ⅶ.2018. (SW Yoon & DO Shin)

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Taiwan, Japan.

    Acknowledgements

    This study was supported by the Sangji University Research Fund 2018.

    저자 직책 & 역할

    • 류동표 : 상지대, 교수; 실험설계 현미경 분석 및 논문작성

    • 신동오 : 푸른개미연구소, 소장; 시료준비 및 분석

    모든 저자는 원고를 읽고 투고에 동의하였음

    KSAE-59-1-65_F1.GIF

    Strumigenys alecto (Bolton). A: frontal view of the head; B: lateral view of the thorax; C: dorsal view of the thorax; D: lateral view of the petiole.

    KSAE-59-1-65_F2.gif

    Strumigenys solifontis Brown. A: frontal view of the head; B: lateral view of the thorax; C: dorsal view of the thorax; D: lateral view of the petiole.

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