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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.58 No.1 pp.63-68

Three Species of Epipleminae (Lepidoptera: Uraniidae) New to Korea, with a New Synonym for Epiplema nubifasciaria Leech

Jae-Cheon Sohn*, Sung-Soo Kim1, Sei-Woong Choi2
Department of Science Education, Gongju National University of Education, Gongju 32553, Korea
1Research Institute for East Asian Environment and Biology, Seoul 05236, Korea
2Department of Environmental Education, Mokpo National University, Muan 58554, Korea
*Corresponding author:
January 14, 2019 February 22, 2019 February 24, 2019


Three species of Epipleminae: Europlema nubifasciaria (Leech), Dysaethria meridiana (Inoue), and Phazaca theclata (Guenée), are reported for the first time from Korea. Europlema leleji Sinev turns out to be a new synonym of Epiplema nubifasciaria Leech and the latter is newly combined to the genus Europlema. Its female genitalia are first described. This is the first record of Europlema for the Korean fauna. Photos of adults and genitalia are provided for the treated species.

제비나방과 쌍꼬리나방아과의 한국 미기록 3종 보고

손재천*, 김성수1, 최세웅2
공주교육대학교 과학교육과, 1동아시아생물환경김성연구소, 2목포대학교 환경교육과


한국산 제비나방과 쌍꼬리나방아과의 3미기록종인Europlema nubifasciaria (Leech), Dysaethria meridiana (Inoue), Phazaca theclata (Guenée)을 보고한다. Europlema lelejiEpiplema nubifasciaria의 동종이명으로 판명되었고, 후자는 Europlema속으로 새롭게 편입된다. Europlema nubifasciaria의 암컷생식기를 처음으로 기재한다. 채집된 종의 성충과 생식기의 사진을 제공한다.

    Epipleminae are the most speciose subfamily of Uraniidae (Minet and Scoble, 1999), currently including more than 600 species in 70 genera (Sohn and Yen, 2005), and mainly occur in pantropical regions (Holloway, 1998). Epipleminae is distinguished from other subfamilies within Uraniidae in having the basally-broad internal projection of the male tympanal organ; forewing veins, M2 and Rs4+M1, often connate; and in most cases, the hindwing with tails at Rs and M3 veins (Holloway, 1998;Minet and Scoble, 1999). The larvae feed on various plants belonging Adoxaceae, Bignoniaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Oleaceae, Rosaceae, and Rubiaceae (Lees and Smith, 1992).

    The Korean Epipleminae comprises 9 species in 5 genera and two unplaced species (Sohn and Yen, 2005). These species include some common, widespread species, such as Dysaethria moza (Butler) and Oroplema plagifera (Butler), but also Oroplema oyamana (Matsumura), Dysaethria cretacea (Butler) and D. flavistriga (Warren) that occur exclusively in the southern Korea, such as Jeonnam and Jeju provinces. Records of the two species, Monobolodes prunaria (Moore) and Phazaca alikangensis (Strand) in Korea are very likely due to accidental introduction (Sohn and Yen, 2005). Sohn (2006) reported that the larvae of Dysaethria erasaria (Christoph) and O. oyamana feed on Viburnum (Adoxaceae) and Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae), respectively. There has been no report of significant economic damage caused by epiplemines in Korea.

    The purposes of this article are to report three species of Epipleminae for the first time from Korea and to revise the systematic status of Europlema leleji Sinev and Epiplema nubifasciaria Leech.

    Materials and Methods

    Dried specimens were obtained from four institutional collections: BMNH (Natural History Museum, London), GJUE (Gongju National University of Education), MPNU (Mokpo National University, Muan), and NIBR (National Institute of Biological Resource, Incheon).

    Dissection of genitalia followed Clarke (1941), except that Chlorazol black and Euparal were used for staining and permanent mounting. Terms for genitalia and wing venation followed Klots (1970) and Wootton (1979). In the specimen data, “GSN” in brackets indicates genitalia slide number.

    Taxonomic accounts

    Family Uraniidae Blanchard, 1845

    Subfamily Epipleminae Hampson, 1892

    Genus EuroplemaHolloway, 1998

    EuroplemaHolloway, 1998: 116. Type species: Erosia desistaria Walker, 1861, by original designation.

    The moths of this genus can be characterized by the distinctive fasciae on the white wings; a slender process on the triangular valva in male genitalia; and the corpus bursae with one large signum, sometimes opposed by a small one in female genitalia. Europlema include at least 13 species that occur in tropical Australasia and temperate East Asia (Holloway, 1998;Sinev, 2016). The taxonomic boundary of Europlema needs a further attention.

    Europlema nubifasciaria (Leech, 1897) comb. nov. 고운쌍꼬리 나방(Fig. 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D)

    Epiplema nubifasciariaLeech, 1897: 186 (Type locality: China, [Hubei prov.], Changyang).

    Europlema lelejiSinev, 2016: 129 (Type locality: Russia, Primorsky krai), syn. nov.

    Description. Head with vertex white; frons dark brown. Antenna laminate, 1/3 as long as forewing; scape white; flagellomeres white, intermixed with grayish-brown scales. Labial palpus dark grayish brown, 1.5× longer than antennal scape; 1st segment as long as 2nd; 3rd segment 1/2 as long as 2nd, acuminate apically. Thorax with patagium, tegula, mesonotum white; mesoscutellum pale grayish brown. Foreleg dark grayish brown dorsally and on interior surface, white on exterior surface. Midleg with coxa white; femur white, intermixed with pale brownish gray distally; tibia white; tarsomere white, with dark brown band basally. Hindleg white; tarsomere with dark brown band basally. Forewing length 7.4-8.9 mm (n = 6), white, with pale brownish gray blots on basal half; costa sparsely dotted; postmedian line of even width, outer edge zigzagged between veins, brown, juxtaposed with dark brown streaks; pale bluish brown shade between postmedian and subterminal lines, with reddish brown patch and dark brown patch posteriorly; subterminal line as a row of five, black dots; adterminal dashes brownish gray; fringe white on anterior 2/5, pale reddish brown on posterior 3/5, dark brown on tornus. Hindwing white; subbasal patch pale brownish gray; antemedian line, narrow, sinuous, dark brown; postmedian line broadened posteriorly, sinuous, brown, juxtaposed with dark brown streaks; subterminal shade pale bluish brown, with reddish brown patch anteriorly and dark brown patch posteriorly; round pale bluish brown patch near middle of postmedian line; round reddish brown patch near posterior 1/3 of postmedian line; three adterminal dots on middle area, pale reddish brown with dark brown pupil; terminal line pale reddish brown; fringe white on anterior 1/4; pale reddish brown on posterior 3/4, intermixed with grayish brown scales near anal angle. Abdomen with tergites white, with black batch mediobasally; sternites white. Male genitalia (Fig. 2A) with uncus cuneate, long-setose, broadened basally. Tegumen subtrapezoidal; gnathos band-like, curved, protruding as process medially; transtilla concave medially. Valva rectangular in basal 2/3, semicircular in distal 1/3, densely long-setose on distal half; costa slightly curved at basal 1/4; sacculus slightly bulged in basal half, with digitate, setose process basally. Anellus spinulate; juxta convex posteriorly. Vinculum broadly round. Phallus (Fig. 2B) nearly straight, of nearly even width; coecum slightly broadened; cornutal zone spinulate, 2/5 as long as phallus. Female genitalia (Fig. 2D) with papilla analis semi-globular, setose, spinulate on apical area. Lamellae postvaginales continuous, concave medially, wrinkled. Apophysis posterioris slender, 1.5x longer than apophysis anterioris. Ostium bursae present on bowl-like, invaginated area. Ductus bursae very short, sclerotized like ring. Corpus bursae elongate-obovate, 3.5x longer than apophysis posterioris; signum elliptical, with pectinate, serrate bulges; cervix bursae tubular, tapered to ductus seminalis.

    Material examined. [KOREA] 1♂, Gangwon Prov., Chuncheon, Gangchon-ri, Gugokpokpo, (JC Sohn), GJUE; 1♂, Gangwon Prov., Chuncheon, Sabug-myeon, Jipdari Recreation Forest, 19.vii.2001 (JC Sohn), [GSN] SJC-77, GJUE;1♀, Gangwon Prov., Chuncheon, Oweol-ri, (JC Sohn), NIBR; 1♂, Gangwon Prov., Chuncheon, Bongmyeong-ri, 16.viii.2002 (JC Sohn), [GSN] SJC-136, GJUE; 1♀, ditto, 27.vii.2003 (JC Sohn), NIBR; 1♀, Gangwon Prov., Jeongseon, Mt. Goyangsan, 22.vii.2003 (JC Sohn), [GSN] SJC-46, GJUE; 1♀, Gangwon Prov., Hwacheon, Hwacheon-eup, Mt. Haesanryong (near tunnel, alt. 1190 m), 27.vii.2008 (JC Sohn), GJUE.

    Distributon. Korea, China (Hubei), Russia (Far East).

    Remarks. We examined the male holotype of Epiplema nubifasciariaLeech, 1897 from the BMNH collection, labeled as following: “Type” [circular label with red edges], “Chang Yang/ A.E. Prett Coll./ Aug 1888” [label with black edges], “Leech Coll./ 1900-64”. Sinev (2016) described Europlema leleji, based on one male from the south of the Russian Far East. The external and genital features of E. leleji were identical with those of the specimens from Korea. In fact, the wing pattern- of E. leleji is nearly identical with that of Chinese species, Epiplema nubifasciaria Leech (Fig. 1A) that has never been illustrated so far. Based on the similarity, we synonymize those two species. The South Korean collecting sites of E. nubifasciaria suggest its predicted occurrence in North Korea.

    Genus Dysaethria Turner, 1911

    DysaethriaTurner, 1911: 75, 80. Type species: Dysaethria pasteopaTurner, 1911, by monotypy.

    This genus can be characterized by the male genitalia with the uncus modified to an inverted gutter around the anal tube, flanked by one or two pairs of lateral spurs (Holloway, 1998). With the record of D. meridiana (Inoue), a total of five species of Dysaethria have been known from Korea.

    Dysaethria meridiana (Inoue, 1982) 남방흑점쌍꼬리나방(Fig. 1C, 2C)

    Epiplema meridianaInoue, 1982: 578 (Type locality: Japan, Okinawa Is., Koza).

    Description. Head with vertex pale brownish gray; frons black, broadly intermixed with dark brown scales along upper edge. Antenna laminate, 1/3 as long as forewing; scape pale brownish gray; flagellum pale brownish gray, intermixed with dark brown scales on basal 1/3. Labial palpus dark brown, as long as fore-femur; 2nd segment 1.5× longer than 1st; 3rd segment as long as 2nd, acuminate apically. Thorax with patagium and tegula pale brownish gray; mesonotum and mesoscutellum brownish gray intermixed with dark brownish gray scales posteriorly. Foreleg with coxa dark brown; femur pale brownish gray; tibia and tarsomeres dark brownish gray. Midleg with coxa pale brownish gray; femur yellowish gray; tibia brownish gray; tarsomeres brownish gray dorsally, pale orange ventrally. Hindleg with coxa and femur pale brown, intermixed with pale brownish gray scales; tibia pale brownish gray; 1st tarsomere pale brown; 2nd-4th tarsomeres pale brownish gray dorsally, pale brown ventrally. Forewing length 13.2 mm (n = 1), dark brownish gray; termen angulate at middle; antemedian line narrow, angulate at anterior 2/5, dark brown; postmedian line present on anterior half, narrow, oblique, dark brown; dorsal patch semicircular, dark brown; subterminal line present on anterior half, crescentiform; fringe dark brown. Hindwing dark brownish gray; subbasal line narrow, curved, dark brown; V-shaped patch at middle, with reddish brown streak stretching to subbasal line; postmedian line narrow, angulate at middle, white, juxtaposed with dark brown streak along interior edge; broad reddish brown band on posterior half of postmedian line; subterminal line as three white and black wedges; fringe dark brown. Abdomen with tergite dark brownish gray, with dark brown patch basally; sternite dark brownish gray. Female genitalia (Fig. 2C) with papilla analis subtriangular, densely setose. Apophysis posterioris slender, 3x longer than apophysis anterioris. Area around ostium bursae shallowly emarginated, weakly sclerotized, with sclerotized band along ventral edges. Ductus bursae narrowed to ostium bursae on posterior 1/5, of even width between posterior 1/5 and posterior half, broadened to corpus bursae in anterior half, longitudinally wrinkled on anterior half, with broad sclerite continuous to sclerotized area on corpus bursae. Corpus bursae obovate; band-like sclerotized area 2/3 as long as corpus bursae, with paired granulate area anteriorly; two signa as dentate conical emargination.

    Material examined. [KOREA] 1♀, Jeju Prov., Seogwipo-si, Namwon-eup, Harye-ri (33˚18'56"N 126˚37'08", alt. 264 m), 6.ix.2013 (SW Choi), [GSN] SJC-978, NIBR.

    Distribution. Korea, Japan.

    Host plants. Adoxaceae - Viburnum odoratissimum Ker Gawl., V. plicatum Thunb. (Sugi, 1994).

    Remarks. This species is very close to Dysaethria moza (Butler), a widespread species in Korea, but can be distinguished from the latter in having the shorter laminae on the male antennae and the female corpus bursae with two nearly-identical signa. The present record of D. meridiana from Korea seems to be due to an accidental migration.

    Genus PhazacaWalker, 1863

    PhazacaWalker, 1863: 20. Type species: Phazaca erosioidesWalker, 1863, by monotypy.

    Synonyms: BalantiuchaTurner, 1911;DiradesWalker, 1866;Diradopsis Warren, 1898; Homoplexis Warren, 1907; Lobogethes Warren, 1896. See Holloway (1998) for full records.

    This genus is defined by one synapomorphy: the valva of the male genitalia divided into a blade-like or fan-like valvula and the oblong sacculus (Holloway, 1998). With the present record, two species of Phazaca have been known from Korea: P. alikangensis (Strand) and P. theclata (Guenée).

    Phazaca theclata (Guenée, 1857) 바람쌍꼬리나방(Fig. 1D, 2E)

    Erosia theclata Guenée, 1857: 36 (Type locality: Sierra Leone).

    Dirades binotataWalker, 1866: 1650 (Type locality: Sri Lanka).

    Dirades sigillataMabille, 1898: 228 (Type locality: Madagascar).

    Phazaca theclata: Holloway, 1998: 124.

    Description. Head with vertex broadly pale yellow between scape, dark brown posteriorly; frons dark brown. Antenna laminate, 1/3 as long as forewing; scape and basal six flagellomeres pale yellowish gray; resting flagellomeres dark brown. Labial palpus 1/2 as long as fore-tibia; 1st segment 1/3 as long as 2nd, dark brown; 2nd segment 1.5× longer than 3rd, dark brown on exterior surface, pale yellow on interior surface; 3rd segment brownish gray, acuminate apically. Thorax with patagium, tegula, mesonotum brownish gray. Foreleg dark brown on interior surface; pale brownish gray on exterior surface; tarsomere with pale yellow ring distally. Mid- and hindleg pale brownish gray. Forewing length 9.2 mm (n = 1), pale brownish gray, intermixed with dark brown scales; postmedian line narrow, white, curved, juxtaposed with broad, dark brown shade along interior edge; subterminal shade dark brown; adterminal line as a row of dark brown, semicircular patches; dorsal patch semicircular, dark brown; fringe dark grayish brown. Hindwing pale brownish gray, irrorated with dark brown; dark brown strigulae between subbasal and postmedian lines; antemedian line present on posterior 1/3, dark brown, juxtaposed with orange streak along interior edge; postmedian line narrow, juxtaposed with broad, brown shade on anterior 2/3 and black band on posterior 1/3 along interior edge; subterminal area striolate with dark brown; adterminal line narrow, white, waved, juxtaposed with semicircular, dark brown patches; fringe dark grayish brown. Abdomen with tergite brownish gray, with dark brown patch mediobasally; sternite brownish gray. Female genitalia (Fig. 2E) with papilla analis digitate, setose, slightly sclerotized. Apophysis posterioris as long as apophysis anterioris. Area around ostium bursae broadly emarginated, spinulate. Ductus bursae 2x longer than ostium bursae, of even width and spinulate between antrum and anterior 1/5, broadened in anterior 1/5; antrum bowl-like, 1/10 length of ductus bursae. Corpus bursae obovate; signum disc-like, with circular nucleus and radiating needles of various lengths.

    Material examined. [KOREA] 1♀, Jeju Prov., Seogwipo-si, Namwon-eup, Sillye-ri (33˚19'57"N 126˚36'25", alt. 499 m), 1.x.2016 (SW Choi), [GSN] SJC-1078, NIBR. [TAIWAN] 1♀, Ilan County, Fushan Botanical Garden, 17 iv 2006 (SW Choi), MPNU.

    Distribution. Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Africa, Madagascar.

    Host plants. Rubiaceae - Mussaenda (Chen, 1997).

    Remarks. This tropical species is very likely an accidental migrant in Korea.


    This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources, funded by the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea (NIBR201701203).


    Adults of Epipleminae. A, Europlema nubifasciaria (Leech), holotype of Epiplema nubifasciaria Leech, BMNH; B, Europlema nubifasciaria (Leech), Gugokpokpo, Gangwon Prov., Korea; C, Dysaethria meridiana (Inoue), Harye-ri, Jeju Prov., Korea; D, Phazaca theclata (Guenée), Sillye-ri, Jeju Prov., Korea. Scale bars = 5 mm.


    Genitalia of Epipleminae. A, Europlema nubifasciaria (Leech), male genital capsule; B, Europlema nubifasciaria (Leech), phallus; C, Dysaethria meridiana (Inoue), female; D, Europlema nubifasciaria (Leech), female; E, Phazaca theclata (Guenée), female.


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