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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.58 No.1 pp.15-25
DOI : https://doi.org/10.5656/KSAE.2019.01.1.053

First Records of Genera Cycetogamasus and Neogamasus of Parasitidae (Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) from the Republic of Korea

Eunsun Keum, Sławomir Kaczmarek, Tomasz Marquardt, Chuleui Jung
1Plant Quarantine Technology Center, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660 Korea
2Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz 85-093, Poland
3Department of Plant Medicals, Andong National University, Andong 36729, Korea
4Agricultural Science and Technology Research Institute, Andong National University, Andong 36729, Korea
*Corresponding author: cjung@andong.ac.kr
November 1, 2018 January 7, 2019 January 17, 2019

Abstract


Mites in the family Parasitidae (Mesostigmata) are important predators in soil ecosystem. During the soil acarine biodiversity study from diverse habitats in the Republic of Korea, we found newly recording species of parasitid mites of genus Cycetogamasus and Neogamasus. This paper reports two species Cycetogamasus coreanus and C. corculatus of genus Cycetogamasus and five species Neogamasus eogenualis, N. tikhomirovi, N. laciniatus, Neogamasus kengicus and Neogamasus mahunkai of genus Neogamasus as new record in the Republic of Korea.



한국산 온판기생응애속과 두판기생응애속(중기문응애: 기생응애과) 미기록종 보고

금은선1,3, 슬라비 카즈마렉2, 토마스 마르콰트르2, 정철의3,4*
1농식품검역검사본부 식물검역기술센터, 2카지미르비엘키대학교 진화생물학과, 3안동대학교 식물의학과, 4안동대학교 농업과학기술연구소

초록


중기문응애목에 속하는 기생응애과(Parasitidae) 응애는 몸집이 크고 활동력이 왕성한 중요 토양 포식자이다. 토양응애 다양성 연구 중 국내 미기록종 기생응애과를 발견하여 보고하는 바이다. 이 논문에서는 온판기생응애속(genus Cycetogamasus) 2종, 한국온판기생응애(Cycetogamasus coreanus), 주름온판기생응애(C. corculatus), 두판기생응애속(genus Neogamasus) 5종, 두판기생응애(Neogamasus eogenualis), 티코미로비두판기 생응애(N. tikhomirovi), 이쁜두판기생응애(N. laciniatus), 경기두판기생응애(Neogamasus kengicus), 마훈카두판기생응애(Neogamasus mahunkai) 를 한국의 미기록종으로 보고한다.



    The family Parasitidae are common and widely distributed mites of the Gamasina in soil, litter and humus. They are especially abundant in accumulations of organic material such as rotting seaweed, compost, dung and in the subterranean nests of small mammals. Also, among Parasitidae other species are associated with bumblebees and burying beetles during of their life-cycle, the ‘host (phoresy)’ being used as a means of transport. Parasitidae are essentially predatory and feed upon other microarthropods, such as insect eggs, nematodes, collembolans, other mites and soil dwelling animals (Hyatt, 1980; Keum et al., 2016).

    In Korea, first research of the family Parasitidae was collected by Hungarian scientists in 1970. The gamasid mites were studied by Dr. S. Mahunka who collected them within three areas: the capital of Pyongyang, the seaport of Wonsan (Gangwon province) and around Kaesong to the southern part of the country (Gyeonggi province). North Korean fauna of Parasitidae was collected (Athias-Henriot, 1977, 1980).

    Korean mites of the family Parasitidae are poorly known and consisted of 29 species reported by Athias-Henriot (1977, 1980), Daele (1975) and Tichomirov (1977) from North Korea, and eight species reported by Choi (1994), Kaczmarek and Lee (2000) and Jung et al. (2010) from South Korea (Keum et al., 2016). We were first collected Cycetogamasus coreanus, C. corculatus, Neogamasus eogenualis, N. tikhomirovi, N. laciniatus, N. kengicus, and N. mahunkai from South Korea. This paper reports newly recording species of Cycetogamasus and Neogamasus in the family Parasitidae to the Republic of Korea with some descriptions relative to their original descriptions.

    Materials and Methods

    We collected soil from diverse habitats of forest, agricultural, riparian soil habitats from 2009 to 2017 during a study on the soil microarthropods biodiversity in Korea (Keum and Jung, 2012, 2014; Keum et al., 2016). Soil microarthropods were extracted using a modified Berless-Tullgren funnel (30 W, 72 h), preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and mounted on slide glass using polyvinyl alcohol mounting medium (PVA medium) (Downs, 1943). Morphological features of adult mites were conducted under the compound Olympus JP/BX51 phase contrast microscope equipped with a drawing tube. Setal notation of Parasitidae for the idiosoma follows that of Athias-Henriot (1977, 1980). New record species are deposited in Insect Ecology Lab, Department of Plant Medicine, Andong National University (ANU), Andong, Korea and also in NIBR (NIBRIV0000325955, NIBRIV0000325956, NIBRIV0000325957, NIBRIV0000325958, NIBRIV0000325959, NIBRIV0000325960, and NIBRIV0000325961).

    Results and Discussion

    Class Arachnida

    Superorder Parasitiformes

    Order Mesostigmata 중기문응애목

    Family Parasitidae Oudemans, 1901 기생응애과

    Genus Cycetogamasus Athias-Henriot, 1980 온판기생응애속

    TYPE SPECIES - Pergamasus diviortus Athias-Henriot, 1967

    Diagnosis. Female. A form of the tegular limbus, that of the paraxial setae of the general pedipalps, whole, baculiform or weakly dilated apically or laterally. When gv1 is preserved, it is tylochore and when gv3 is present, hoplochore; orthoadenic opisthonotal shield; gd2 is strong and actually present in all species examined); gd1 and gd5 are small; anterolateral process with well-developed sternum, variable; more mobile trident (female); close to gv2; gv2 single or double; epigynal separated from the opisthogastric shield by a cut or band of plicature; spermatotreme simple; the arthrodial oncophyses of the chelicera of the male are never fascinated. The opisthogastric shield of the deutonymph carries two pairs of V setae.

    Cycetogamasus coreanusAthias-Henriot, 1980 (한국온판기생 응애)

    Material examined. 15 ♀♀, Chollipo Arboretum Foundation, Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam province, Republic of Korea, 36°47' N, 126°08' E, alt. 206 m, 18 May 2012, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil; 4 ♀♀, Mt. Chongtae, Hoengseong, Gangwon province, Republic of Korea, 37°31' N, 128°17' E, alt. 815 m, 12 Jun 2013, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil; 21 ♀♀ and 6 ♂♂, Taehwa River, Ulsan Metropolitan City, Republic of Korea, 35°32' N, 129°17' E, alt. 166 m, 3 Jun 2015, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil (coniferous and deciduous forest); 27 ♀♀ and 4 ♂♂, Baekrokdam, Hallasan national park, Jeju Island, Republic of Korea 33°21' N, 126°32' E, alt. 1,910 m, 33°24' N, 126°38' E, alt. 1,497 m, 16 Sep 2016, 22 April 2017, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil.

    Diagnosis. Fig. 1. Dorsal setae very robust, villous; gd1 and gv1 deficient. Spur that from gd4, solenostomus glanduares dorsal and that from gv3 provided a kind of warbler; q, u. o. Reticulation peltidiale peripheral, to crested projecting and hollow cavities, generalized cross-linking the rest of the cuticle sclerotized idiosoma. Sclerotized presternal shield divided into an anti-subquad central angular piece and a paraxial rod. Anterior lateral process off sternum indented to anti-axial element v1 and its board antiaxial. Posterior edge of the sternal shield recurve. Lobe paragynial long and narrow sclerotized metagynal small subtusiforme. Posterior lobe of the peritrematic shield free, thick, indented. Epigynous subpentagonal, previously extended, bringing, v5 very short, close to gv2. Endogynal cupuliform bag, suspended from sclerotic metagynal by a flaky membrane; the bag ventral door a robust odd thickening, oblong, geometrically complicated: externally, subogival door and it is strong relief lanceolar, with a sagittal furrow; internally, this room is rectangular, with the anterior edge indented. The membrane suspension is entire and dorsally in continuity with the bag wall, ventrally eile is widely and protond element anterior paraxial indented and its extremity is fixed at the angular hard spur formed by the sagittal depression odd thickening described above. In the III-IV v. s. t distal its setae dorsal lateral reduits, tIV simple.

    Remark. This species was found in Gyeonggi province, Bagyon-san, Bagyon pokpo, about 27 km SW from Kaesong, 7 Jun 1970, a northwestern lateral valley near a waterfall; litter and moist, black humus from diverse sites. The samples were mostly from soil material. The material is preserved in the Hungarian Natural History Museum in Budapest (HNHMB).

    Cycetogamasus corculatusAthias-Henriot, 1980 (주름온판 기생응애)

    Material examined. 3 ♀♀, apple orchards, Cheongsong, Gyeongbuk province, Republic of Korea, 36°17' N, 129°00' E, alt. 284 m, 18 April 2012, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from the soil.

    Diagnosis. Fig. 2. Idiosoma is sclerotized and entirely reticulated, with dominate transversal in the peltidium. Dorsal shield setae are long and fine; gv1, gv3 and ad1 presented; gd5 absent; gv2 double; gd4 posterior paraxial to id4, enough remote from this setae; q, u, o. Process anterior lateral from sternum little develop. Setae V5 deficient; gv3 anterior the two enclosed paraxial and close from anterior. The tII-IV, v. s. t. dissociates; A spur dorsal the tr IV.

    Female. Presternal shield sclerotized and anterolateral ventral shield process from the same type of the male C. coreanus. Posterior edge of the sternal shield recurve. Lobe paragynial fusiform, moderately prolonged. Metagynal shield voluminous sclerotized, sub-quadrangular. Presenting area flat crescent form or rests the relief anterior dorsal from epigynal when it ended anal shield ciest. Cingulate develop well. Epigynal shield subtriangular, to edge posterior subretilinear, bearing iv5 and a relief anterior dorsal hickory; this latest presented anterior eurement a crest sagittal and in rear from their previous, a pair from crest transversal procures. Bag endogynal grand, at long and large, flare rear in before; it presented two areas lateral piriform cross-linked punctuated and it is surmounted a disk to edge ventral toothed.

    Remark. Holotype: Female. The democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Gangwon province, Geum-gang san, (Diamond Range), surroundings of Hotel Go-song, 29 May 1970, forest near Hotel, litter from the base of the old oak. The samples were mostly from soil material. The material is preserved in the HNHMB.

    Genus Neogamasus Tikhomirov, 1969 두판기생응애속

    Both first diagnoses are based on the same single species, Parasitus islandicus Sellnick, 1940 (Athias-Henriot, 1967; Tikhomirov, 1969, 1971). Neogamasus was erected in 1969 as one of the subgenera of the genus Parasitus Latreille sensu Micherdzinski.

    Diagnosis. Female. Denticles absent or present on the margin of the genital shield. Densely sclerotized mites. Within the vaginal cavity there are present symmetrical, most frequently paired, dentate sclerotized structures. The cells on the sternal and metasternal shields are distinctly outlined; the division of the shields is always clearly evident. Ventral shield wide rounded posteriorly, no constriction in front of the anal scutellum, lateral margin of shield always even.

    Neogamasus eogenualisAthias-Henriot, 1977 (두판기생응애)

    Material examined. 3 ♂♂, Andong, Gyeongbuk province, Republic of Korea, 36°33' N, 126°46' E, alt. 206 m, 23 May 2009, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from a riparian grassland soil.

    Diagnosis. Fig. 3. There are about 40 opisthonotal shield setae, gd8 is missing. On the peltidium, a sparse, medial network is visible. The organs id1, id2, and gd1 stand. At the massive outstanding tegularphyllium the edge and the peaks bear teeth. On palp genu both paraxial setae with 6 are lobed. The corniculus inside shows a rounded, low elevation. The fixed charge ends hack-forming and with 17 teeth. Movable digit of chelicera with 7 teeth. At the leading edge of a spermatotrema coalesced with a movable digit.

    Neogamasus tikhomiroviAthias-Henriot, 1977 (티코미로비두 판기생응애)

    Material examined. 15 ♀♀, Samcheok, Gangwon province, Republic of Korea, 36°47' N, 126°08' E, alt. 206 m, 18 May 2012, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil; 5 ♀♀, Mt. Chongtae, Hoengseong, Gangwon province, Republic of Korea, 37°31' N, 128°17' E, alt. 815 m, 12 Jun 2013, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil; 12 ♀♀, Hoengseong, Gangwon province, Republic of Korea, 37°31' N, 128°47' E, alt. 627 m, 7 Jun 2012, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil; 10 ♀♀, Mt. Cheongok, Bonghwa, Gyeongbuk province, Republic of Korea, 37°02' N, 128°59' E, alt. 166 m, 8 July 2014, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil (coniferous and deciduous forest); 20 ♀♀and 6 ♂♂, Taehwa River, Ulsan Metropolitan City, Republic of Korea, 35°32' N, 129°17' E, alt. 166 m, 3 Jun 2015, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil (coniferous and deciduous forest); 27 ♀♀ and 4 ♂♂, Baekrokdam, Hallasan national park, Jeju Island, Republic of Korea 33°21' N, 126°32' E, alt. 1,910 m, 33°24' N, 126°38' E, alt. 1,497 m, 16 Sep 2016, 22 April 2017, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil.

    Diagnosis. Fig. 4. Female with a completely divided dorsal shield; opisthonotal shield with 40 setae; gd8 is absent. On peltidium the network drawing extends only outside. Both front setae at the R1-complex are quite strong short; gd4 is close near id4.

    Remark. Holotype: Female. AG657-77-2. The samples were mostly from soil material. The material is preserved in the HNHMB.

    Neogamasus laciniatusAthias-Henriot, 1977 (이쁜두판기생 응애)

    Material examined. 8 ♀♀, Samchek, Gangwon province, Republic of Korea, 36°47' N, 126°08' E, alt. 206 m, 18 May 2012, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil; 2 ♀♀, Mt. Chongtae, Hoengseong, Gangwon province, Republic of Korea, 37°31' N, 128°17' E, alt. 815 m, 12 Jun 2013, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from soil.

    Diagnosis. Fig. 5. The anterior opisthosoma with 32 setae. The cross-cutting gap is voilstanding. On peltidium the network drawing extends to the central axis. Both front setae at the R1-complex are greatly reduced; gd4 leads to id4 expanded. The setae id2 is to id1 further in the types previously described. idm6 is normal. The gland gv1 lays close next r3. At the anterior paraxial sharpened metasternal shield is medium-sized, spoon-shaped and the inside presents on of the high from v4 angled projection.

    Remark. Holotype: Female. AG412-80-2. The samples were mostly from soil material. The material is preserved in the HNHMB.

    Neogamasus kengicusAthias-Henriot, 1977 (경기두판기생 응애)

    Material examined. 7 ♂♂, Yeongju, Gyeongbuk province, Republic of Korea, 36°50' N, 128°28' E, alt. 112 m, 25 April 2012, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from apple orchard soil.

    Diagnosis. Fig. 6. The normally developed gv1 opens some middle to iv3 as to v3; gv2 is twice. Peltidium covers them the net drawing, not to the central axis. The normally developed gv1 opens some closer to iv3 as i3, gv2 is twice. That basis of femur shows a ventral projection; the apophysis is elongated, low, and long with the link merged. At the genu presents the ventral 2 rounded, hair-bearing surveys. On the tibia is av1 joint fused, conically, big and perpendicular to the axis directional.

    Remark. Holotype: Female. North Korea. AG501-50-1. The samples were mostly from soil material. The material is preserved in the HNHMB.

    Neogamasus mahunkaiAthias-Henriot, 1977 (마훈카두판기생 응애)

    Material examined. 6 ♀♀, Yeongju, Gyeongbuk province, Republic of Korea, 36°50' N, 128°28' E, alt. 112 m, 25 April 2012, E. Keum and C. Jung coll., from apple orchard soil.

    Diagnosis. Fig. 7. The gland gv1 opens behind gv3. Far from of the central axis; gv2 is twice. The anterior paraxial sharpened metasternal shield wearing on great, bubble-like sclerotized metagynal. Endogynal pouch is ventral deep rounded; the wall presents ventral on paired, great.

    Remark. Holotype: Female. North Korea. AG424-119-1. The samples were mostly from soil material. The material is preserved in the HNHMB.

    Acknowledgements

    This study was partly supported by the research grant “The Survey of Korean Indigenous Species” from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR) of the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2018R1A6A1A 03024862).

    KSAE-58-1-15_F1.gif

    Cycetogamasus coreanusAthias-Henriot, 1980, female: A, dorsal idiosoma; B, ventral idiosoma; C, peritremal shield; D, hypostome; E, epigynal; F, chelicera; G, tectum.

    KSAE-58-1-15_F2.gif

    Cycetogamasus corculatusAthias-Henriot, 1980, female: A, dorsal idiosoma; B, ventral idiosoma; C, D, epigyne; E, palp; F, chelicera; male: G, chelicera, H, leg II.

    KSAE-58-1-15_F3.gif

    Neogamasus eogenualisAthias-Henriot, 1977, male: A, dorsal idiosoma; B, ventral idiosoma; C, hypostome; D, chelicera; E, tectum; F, leg II.

    KSAE-58-1-15_F4.gif

    Neogamasus tikhomiroviAthias-Henriot, 1977, female: A, dorsal idiosoma; B, ventral idiosoma; C, hypostome; D, tectum; E, epigynal; F, palp; male: G, leg II.

    KSAE-58-1-15_F5.gif

    Neogamasus laciniatusAthias-Henriot, 1977, female: A, dorsal idiosoma; B, ventral idiosoma; C, hypostome; D, tectum; E, epigynal; F, peritremal shield; G, leg II; H, chelicera; male: I, chelicera.

    KSAE-58-1-15_F6.gif

    Neogamasus kengicusAthias-Henriot, 1977, male: A, dorsal idiosoma; B, ventral idiosoma; C, hypostome; D, chelicera; E, tectum; F, leg II.

    KSAE-58-1-15_F7.gif

    Neogamasus mahunkaiAthias-Henriot, 1977, female: A, dorsal idiosoma; B, ventral idiosoma; C, tectum.

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