Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.57 No.3 pp.191-197

A New Record of Asca bicornis Canestrini & Fanzago, 1877 (Acari, Mesostigmata, Ascidae) from Hallasan Mountain in the Republic of Korea

Eunsun Keum1,2 and Chuleui Jung2*
1Plant Quarantine Technology Center, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea
2Department of Plant Medicals, Andong National University, Andong 36729, Korea
*Corresponding author:
July 10, 2018 August 16, 2018 August 24, 2018


Mites in the family Ascidae are soil dwelling predators of small insects which would have potential to be used as biological control agent. In Korea, 10 genera of 24 species were recorded in the family. During the soil acarine biodiversity study, Asca bicornis Canestrini & Fanzago, 1877 was discovered from moss habitat on Muljangori craer lake 936 m alt in Hallasan mountain in Jeju which was designated as UNESCO Biosphere reserve and World herigate site. We reports this as a new record to Korean Mesostigmata fauna, and provide the morphological description. This species has morphologically characteristic as all dorsal setae nude and needle shaped, lateral caudal projection of Z4 shaped, which are different from the con-general species of A. aphidioides.

한라산에서 발견된 미기록 응애 Asca bicornis (응애아강, 중기문응애목, 떠돌이응애과)의 보고

1농림축산검역본부 식물검역기술센터, 2안동대학교 식물의학과


중기문응애목 떠돌이응애과는 토양에 서식하는 포식성 응애로, 토양해충의 생물적 방제원으로 이용가치가 있다. 우리나라의 떠돌이응애과 는 10속, 24종이 보고 되었다. 본 연구는 제주도 한라산천연보호구역 물장오리오름에서 토양응애 생물다양성 연구 중 이끼에서 우리나라 미기록종 Asca bicornis Canestrini & Fanzago, 1877을 발견하여 보고하는 바이다. 등판과 배판의 묘사를 통해서 형태적인 특징을 자세히 제공하였다. 근연 종인 A. aphidioides는 등판 양쪽 말단에 돌출된 혹에서 각 1개의 센털이 있으나, A. bicornis는 2개가 나 있다.

    National Institute of Biological Resources

    Ascid mites are important predators in many soil ecosystems (Walter, 1988; Kinnear, 1991) with organic soil, grasses, mosses, or dead organic matter on the soil surface and barks. Also these are often found from of forests, crop land and other habitats associated with humans and other animals (Lindquist and Evans, 1965; McMurtry et al., 2013, 2015).

    The genus Asca of the family Ascidae are an ecologically diverse group and easily recognized by the presence of a pair of tubercles projecting from the posterolateral corners of the posterior dorsal shield (Hurlbutt, 1963). The most diverse genus was Asca, the first numerous in the Oriental and Neotropical regions, and the second in the Nearctic region (Santos et al., 2018). This genus Asca was reported first as Acarus aphidioides (= Asca aphidioides) by Linnaeus (1758). They are predatory, feeding on other mites, insects, collembolans or nematodes (Hurlbutt, 1963; Walter et al., 1993).

    Species diversity of Ascidae encompasses 17 genera, 372 species in the world (Moraes et al., 2016) and 10 genera 24 species in Korea (NIBR, 2013, Table 1). Among Ascide, the genus Asca have been reported 148 species in the world (Moraes et al., 2016; Santos et al., 2018). However, until now, six species of the genus Asca have been reported in Korea: Asca aphidioides (Lee et al., 1996; Kaczmarek, 2000; Jung et al., 2010; Keum et al., 2010), A. garmani (Lee et al., 1996; Jung et al., 2010), A. kosungensis (Lee et al., 1997; Lee, 2009), A. nubes (Lee, 1995; Lee, 2009), A. odowdi (Lee et al., 1997; Lee, 2009) and A. sculptrata (Lee et al., 1996; Jung et al., 2010). From the moss samples collected near Muljangori craer lake 936 m alt. which is located on the eastern slope of Hallasan Mountain in Jeju, we firstly discovered unrecorded one species, Asca bicornis Canestrini & Fanzago, 1877. So, in this study, we report this as a new record to Korean Mesostigmata fauna by providing the morphological illustration and description. In addition, we provide identification key about the genus Asca distributed in Korea.

    Materials and Methods

    We collected soil and other organic materials from Muljangori-oreum (E126°31′, N33°22′, alt. 936 m) in Jeju, Korea. Muljangori-oreum is one of 370 parasitic cones of Hallasan volcanic mountain, with crater lake on top. Mite specimens were extracted using Berlese-Tullgren funnels (30 W, 72 h) from soil samples and preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol. Mites were mounted on slide glass in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) mounting medium (Downs, 1943) and further identified. The line drawings and examination of the specimens were performed with an Olympus BX50 phase contrast microscope equipped with a drawing tube and traced over using Adobe Illustrator CS 2014® program. New record species are deposited in Insect Ecology Lab, Department of Plant Medicine, Andong National University (ANU), Andong, Korea.

    Taxonomic accounts

    Family Ascidae Oudemans, 1905

    Genus Asca von Heyden

    Asca von Heyden, 1826: 610.

    Type species: Gamasus aphidioides, Fab. (sic), 1805 (= Acarus aphidioidesLinnaeus, 1758: 616), by original designation.

    CeratozerconBerlese, 1910: 246 (Synonymy by Vitzthum, 1929: 30; Ryke, 1962: 157; Hurlbutt, 1963: 481; Farrier & Hennessey, 1993: 26; Halliday et al., 1998: 17).

    Ceratozercon. - Berlese, 1913: 204; 1918: 188.

    Asca. - Vitzthum, 1929: 30; Oudemans, 1936: 366; Hirschmann, 1959: 4; Ryke, 1961: 127; 1962: 158; Karg, 1962: 36; 1965: 203; 1971: 253; Bernhard, 1963: 19; Evans, 1963: 286; Hurlbutt, 1963: 481; Lindquist & Evans, 1965: 42; Athias-Henriot, 1968: 243; 1969: 126; Genis et al., 1969: 86; Evans & Till, 1979: 198; Farrier & Hennessey, 1993: 26; Walter et al., 1993: 1330; Halliday et al., 1998: 17; De Leon-Facundo & Corpuz-Raros, 2004: 202; Kalúz & Fend’a, 2005: 42; Gwiazdowicz, 2007: 58; Beard et al., 2011: 8.

    Asca (Ascoseius) Karg, 1979: 257.

    Diagnosis. Dorsal shield divided into podosomal and opisthosomal shield, both usually ornamented (smooth or with slight ornamentation in few species), without transverse and nearly straight lines or delineated strip along lateral margins. Anterior end of podosomal shield not strongly deflexed; podosomal shield usually with 17 pairs of setae (rarely with 16, 18 or 19; always without z1). With pair of posterior projections (horns) on opisthosomal shield usually bearing setae Z4 and S5. Three pairs of sternal setae on the sternal shield and fourth pair free. Genital shield not wide enough to include iv5, but including st5; posteriorly truncate. Opisthogaster with eight pairs of setae in addition to circumanal setae. Peritreme extending from stigma to region between j1 and j2, narrower than diameter of stigma. Peritrematic shield wide usually fused with dorsal shield between level of s1 - r2; posteriorly truncate and broadly fused with exopodal shield beside coxa IV.

    Asca bicornis Canestrini & Fanzago, 1877 쌍털뿔응애(신칭)

    Gamasus (Sejus) bicornis Canestrini & Fanzago, 1877: 103.

    Laelaps bicornis. - G. Canestrini & R. Canestrini, 1882: 78. Sejus bicornis. - Canestrini, 1885: 91.

    Ceratozercon bicornis. - Berlese, 1913: 204; Halbert, 1923: 375. Asca bicornis. - Buitendijk, 1945: 309; Willmann, 1949: 112; Evans, 1958: 584; Halaskova, 1959: 17; Ryke, 1961: 129; Schweizer, 1961: 137; Bernhard, 1963: 72; Hurlbutt, 1963: 495; Karg, 1965: 221; 1971: 274; 1993: 283; Pinchuk, 1976: 54; Kalúz & Fend’a, 2005: 122; Gwiazdowicz, 2007: 61; Çakmak et al., 2011: 581; Kontschan & Ujvari, 2013: 79.

    Asca (Asca) bicornis. - Karg, 1979: 258.

    Asca novaWillmann, 1939: 246 (Synonymy by Willmann, 1949: 112; Evans, 1958: 584; Karg, 1993: 283).

    Asca nova. - Womersley, 1956: 511; Ryke, 1961: 132; Hurlbutt, 1963: 495; Dziuba, 1972: 165.

    Asca (Asca) nova. - Karg, 1979: 258; Farrier & Hennessey, 1993: 28.

    Specimens examined: 31 females, Muljangori-oreum, Hallasan national park, Jeju island, Republic of Korea, N33°22′, E126°31′, alt. 936 m, 22 April 2017, C. Jung coll., from moss habitat.

    Diagnosis. Epistomes with a triramous apex. Peritremes long, reaching coxae I, peritremal shield broad (Fig. 1). Lateral caudal projection of with pair of posterior projections (horns) on opisthosomal shield usually bearing setae Z4 and S5. All dorsal setae nude, needle shaped j1 and other frontal setae shorter, caudal part of body with longer setae. Proximal part of sternal shield 167 μm long and 193 μm wide, with reticulate pattern in front-lateral sides, wearing 17 pairs of setae. Opisthosomal part of dorsal shield 157 μm long and 201 μm wide, with fine and big scale-like pattern in medio-proximal part, shield wearing 16 pairs of nude setae, Z5 = 54 μm, J1 = 15 μm, J3 = 31 μm long. Sternal shield without structure, shield with expressive proximal corners, presternal sclerites confluence with sternal shield. Metasternal shield on soft cuticle or on genital shield, St1 - 3 on sternal shield Tritosternum with trapezoidal base and sparsely pilose laciniae. Genital shield caudally broad-ended, with straight caudal margin, pair of genital setae on lateral margins. Sternal and genital shields smooth. Two pairs of narrow, oblonged postgenital sclerites and two pairs of short needle-shaped setae between genital and ventrianal shields. Ventrianal shield big, proximally slightly concaved and caudally rounded, with cross-running parallel pattern in proximal part. Shield wearing 7 pairs of nude setae, two caudal pairs (Jv4, 5) longer. Leg setae short blunt.

    Distribution. USSR, Western Europe (Bregetova, 1977), Germany (Karg, 1979), Slovakia (Kaluz and Fenda, 2005), Poland (Gwiazdowicz, 2007), Hungary (Kontschán and Ujvari, 2013) and is now recorded in Korea (Fig. 2).

    Remarks.Asca bicornis was found from diverse habitats from dry to wet soils and even from mosses. Specimens for this report were from moss and humus in soi near the crater lake of Muljangori-oreum, Hallasan national park, Jeju Island in Korea. This is the first record of this species in the Eastern Asia.

    Notes.Asca aphidioides is a cosmopolitan species with a single conspicuous pinnate seta on each posterior horn, but Asca bicornis is elongate posterior horns, each bearing two nude setae.

    Key of the genus Asca to species distributed in Korea.

    1. Postero-latral horns each with 1 conspicuous seta; small, tooth-like ornamentation (microtubules) on posterior dorsal shield (aphidioides species-group). ·································· 2 - Postero-lateral horns with 2 conspicuous, subequal setae; posterior microtubules absent. ·········································· 3

    2. Majority of dorsal setae strongly hairy (R2 and J5 nude only), lateral caudal projection of Z4 wearing one hairy seta. ···································· Asca aphidioides (Linnaeus, 1758) - Dorsal shield setae pilose, S5 with long, fine pilosity; setae z5, z6 similar in size to adjacent setae; a row of microtubules lateral seta J4. ························· Asca garmaniHurlbutt 1963 - Cylindrical tubercle-like projection of posterior corner bears only one pinnate seta S5; seta Z4 minute. Setae r4 to r7 strongly pilose, while setae R1 slightly pilose and remainder is simple. ·································· Asca nubes Ishikawa, 1969 - Anterior dorsal shield having 17 pairs of simple setae; a pair of round sculptures found between the tubercles anterior to J5. ············································ Asca sculptrataAoki, 1968 - Posterior dorsal shield with 17 pairs of setae, most of simple, but those on posterior idiosoma more barbed in posterior ones. J3 and J4 with or without minute barbs, Z3 and S4 with distinct barbs. Setae on tubercle as long as J5 and pinnate. ······················································· Asca odowdiLee, 1997 - Posterior dorsal shield with 15 pairs of setae. J3 reaches the base of J4. Two pairs of setae on postero-lateral tubercles as long as J5 and pinnate. ············ Asca kosungensisLee, 1997

    3. Setae J5 small to minute; dorsal shield setae tapering, finely to densely pilose or smooth (bicornis species-group). - All dorsal setae nude and needle shaped, lateral caudal projection of Z4 wearing two nude setae. ···························· ························· Asca bicornis Canestrini & Fanzago, 1877


    This study was supported by the research grant “The Survey of Korean Indigenous Species” from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR) of the Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Korea(NIBR201801202).


    Distribution of Asca bicornis Canestrini & Fanzage, 1877 in the world.


    Asca bicornis Canestrini & Fanzago, 1877, female: A, dorsal idiosoma; B, ventral idiosoma; C, spermathecal apparatus; D, leg II; E, epistome.

    List and reference of recorded species of the family Ascidae from South Korea


    1. Aoki, J. , 1968. Occurrence of the mites of the genus Asca in Japan with description of a new species and a male form of A. aphidioides (Linne) (Acari, Blattisocidae) . Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus. Tokyo11(2), 149-152.
    2. Athias-Henriot, C. , 1968. L’appareil d’insémination laelapoïde (Acariens anactinotriches: Laelapoidea, ♀♀). Premières observation. Possibilité d’emploi à des fins taxonomiques . Bulletin Scientifique de Bourgogna25, 229-274.
    3. Athias-Henriot, C. , 1969. Gamasides chiliens (Acariens Anactinotriches). I - Genre Anephiasca n. g. (Ascidae) . Revista de Biologia7, 123-149.
    4. Berlese, A. , 1910. Lista di nuove species generi di Acari . Redia6, 242-271.
    5. Berlese, A. , 1913. Acaroteca Italica, Fasc. 1 and 2. Tipografia di M. Ricci, Firenze, 221 pp.
    6. Bernhard, F. , 1963. Die Familie Ascaidae (Oudemans 1905) Bernhard nov. comb. Abschnitt III, in: Stammer, H.-J. (Ed.),Beiträge zur Systematik und Ökologie mitteleuropäischer Acarina. Band II. Mesostigmata I. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest & Portig K.-G., Leipzig, pp. 33-177.
    7. Bregetova, N.G. , 1977. Family Aceosejidae Baker and Wharton, 1952 (sunsu Evans, 1958), in: (Ghilyarov, M.S. , Bregetova, N.G. (Eds.), Key to the soil-inhabiting mites. Mesostigmata, pp. 169-226 (Nauka: Leningrad.).
    8. Buitendijk, A.M. , 1945. Voorloopige catalogus van de Acari in de collective - Oudemans . Zool. Mede.24, 281-391.
    9. Çakmak, I. , Faraji, F. , ÇobanogluS. , 2011. A checklist and key to the Ascoidea and Phytoseioidea (except Phytoseiidae) species of Turkey with three new species records (Acari: Mesostigmata). Türk . J. Entomol.35, 575-586.
    10. Canestrini, G. , 1885. Prospetto dell’acarofauna italiana. Famiglie Oribatini, Gamasini, Hoplopini, Trombidini, Rhyncholophini. Atti della Societa Veneto-Trentina di Scienze Naturali, Padova, 1-161, 6 plates.
    11. Canestrini, G. , Canestrini, R. , 1882. I Gamasi italiani . Atti della Societa Veneto-Trentina di Scienze Naturali, Padova, 8, 1-82.
    12. Canestrini, G. , Fanzago, F. , 1876. Nuovi Acari Italiani . Atti della Societa Veneto-Trentina di Scienze Naturali, Padova, 5, 99-111.
    13. Choi, S.S. , 1994. Taxonomic studies on the soil mites on unrecorded species of Pro-and Mesostigmata in Korea. College of Agriculture , Wonkwang University, 28(2), 9-35.
    14. De Leon-Facundo, J.B. , Corpuz-Raros, L.A. , 2004. Predatory mites of the genus Asca von Heyden (Acari: Ascidae) associated with cultivated crops in the Phillippines . Philip. Agric. Sci.87, 196-228.
    15. Downs, W.G. , 1943. Polyvinyl alcohol: A medium for mounting and clearing biological specimens . Science97(2528), 539-540.
    16. Dziuba, S. , 1972. Mesostigmata (Acarina) in some saltmarshes in Poland . Fragm. Faun. (Warsaw)18(9), 163-181.
    17. Evans, G.O. , 1958. Some mesostigmatid mites from a nest of social spiders in Uganda. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 13(1), 580-590.
    18. Evans, G.O. , 1963. Observations on the chaetotaxy of the legs in the free-living Gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Zool.10, 275-303.
    19. Evans, G.O. , Till, W.M. , 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification . Trans. Zool. Soc. London35, 139-270.
    20. Farrier, M.H. , Hennessey, M.K. , 1993. Soil-inhabiting and freeliving Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America. An annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, Technical Bulletin, 302, 1-408.
    21. Genis, N.D.L. , Loots, G.C. , Ryke, P.A.J. , 1969. The genus Asca von Heiden (Acari: Mesostigmata) in the Ethiopian region with descriptions of six new species . Publicacoes Culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola, Lisboa, 81, 83-106.
    22. Gwiazdowicz, G.J. , 2007. Ascid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata) from Selected Forest Ecosystems and Microhabitats in Poland. Wydawnictwo Akademii Rolniczej Im. Augusta Cieszkowskiego, Poznan, 248 pp.
    23. Halaskova, V. , 1959. Die Gattung Asca V. Heyden in der Tschechoslowakei (Acari: Gamasides) . Acta Univ. Carol. Biol.1, 17-21.
    24. Halbert, J.N. , 1923. Notes on Acari, with descriptions of new species. J. Linn. Soc. London . Zool.35, 363-392.
    25. Halliday, B.R. , Walter, D.E. , Lindquist, E.E. , 1998. Revision of the Australian Ascidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) . Invertebrate Taxonomy12, 1-54.
    26. Hirschmann, W. , 1959. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 2. Mundwerkzeuge und Hypostombestimmungstafeln. Acarologie. Schriftenreihe für Verglenchende Milbenkunde 2, 1-23, 7 plates.
    27. Hurlbutt, H.W. , 1963. The genus Asca Von Heyden (Acarina: Mesostigmata) in North America, Hawaii and Europe. Acarologia5, 480-518.
    28. Jung, C. , Kim, J.W. , Marquardt, T. , Kaczmarek, S. , 2010. Species richness of soil gamasid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in firedamaged mountain sites. J. Asia-Pac. Entomol. 13, 233-237.
    29. Kaczmarek, S. , Lee, H.J. , 2000. Gamasida (Acari) in the soil of some forest habitats in South Korea . Acta Zool. Cracov.43(3-4), 293-302.
    30. Kalúz, S. , Fend’a, P. , 2005. Mite (Acari: Mesostigmata) of the family Ascidae of Slovakia. Institute of Zoology Slovakia Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, 167 pp.
    31. Karg, W. , 1965. Larvalsystematische und phylogenetische Untersuchung sowie Revision des Systems der Gamasina Leach, 1915 (Acarina, Parasitiformes) . Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin41, 193-340.
    32. Karg, W. , 1971. Acari (Acarina), Milben, Unterordnung Anactinochaeta (Parasitiformes). Die freilebenden Gamasina (Gamasides), Raubmilben . Die Tierwelt Deutschlands59, 1-475.
    33. Karg, W. , 1979. Zur Kenntnis der Raubmilbengattungen Cheiroseius Berlese, 1916, Asca v. Heyden, 1826 und Halolaelaps Berlese et Trouessart, 1889 (Acarina, Parasitiformes) . Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin55, 251-267.
    34. Karg, W. , 1993. Acari (Acarina), Milben Parasitiformes (Anactinochaeta) Cohors Gamasina Leach, Raubmilben. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meeresteile nach ihren Merkmalen und ihrer Lebensweise. 59. Teil. 2., uberarbeitete Auflage, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, Stuttgart, New York, 523 pp.
    35. Keum, E. , Jung, C. , 2012. Distribution of gamasid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata) on Seonginbong, Ulleung Island . Korean J. Soil Zool.16(1-2), 21-24.
    36. Keum, E. , Kaczmarek, S. , Jung, C. , 2016. A new record of Antennoseius avius (Karg, 1976) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae) from Korea . J. Species Res.5(3), 375-380.
    37. Keum, E. , Kang, M. , Jung, C. , 2015. New record of Arctoseius cetratus (Sellnick, 1940) (Mesostigmata: Ascidae) phoretic to sciarid fly from mushroom culture in Korea . Korean Soc. Environ. Biol.33(2), 209-214.
    38. Keum, E. , Kim, J.W. , Jung, C. , 2010. Comparison of Gamasid mite fauna in Pinus densiflora and Larix leptolepis Forest stands in Bonghwa, Korea . Korean J. Soil Zool.14(1), 12-17.
    39. Keum, E. , Kim, J.W. , Jung, C. , 2011. Community structures of soil predatory mites (Acari: Gamasida) relative to the human disturbance gradient . Korean J. Soil Zool.15(1-2), 21-26.
    40. Kinnear, A. , 1991. Acarine communities of semi-arid soils from the Eastern Goldfields region of Western Australia . Pedobiologia35, 273-283.
    41. Kontschán, J. , Ujvari, Z. , 2013. Free Living Mesostigmatid Mites (Acari: Mesostigmata: Uropodina, Sejina et Antennophorina) of the Hungarian Transdanubian Mountains. Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, 116 pp [in Hungarian].
    42. KSSZ, 1997. List of Animals in Korea (excluding insects). The Korean Society of Systematic Zoology, 489 pp.
    43. Lee, S.Y. , Lee, W.K. , 1998. Four mites of the genus Lasioseius (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae) from Korea . Korean J. Syst. Zool.14(1), 13-19.
    44. Lee, W. K. , 2003. Aceosejid mites (Mesostigmata: Acari) in Korea . Korean J. Soil Zool.8(1-2), 54-57.
    45. Lee, W.G. , 2009. Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna and flora of Korea, Vol. 44, pp. 1-284.
    46. Lee, W.K. , LeeS.Y. , Ryu, M.O. , 1997. Taxonomic studies on the genus Asca (Ascidae: Mesostigmata) in Korea II. - Description of two new species . Korean J. Syst. Zool.13(1): 37-44.
    47. Lee, W.K. , Lee, S.Y. , Kim, J.W. , 1996. Taxonomic studies on the Genus Asca (Ascidae: Mesostigmata) in Korea I . Korean J. Soil Zool.1(2), 102-109.
    48. Lim, C.S. , Lee, W.K. , 2005. Acari attracted to carrion of chicken and cattle . Korean J. Soil Zool.10(1-2), 16-21.
    49. Lindquist, E.E. , Evans, G.O. , 1965. Taxonomic concepts in the Ascidae with a modified setal nomenclature for the idiosoma of the Gamasina (Acarina: Mesostigmata) . Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can.47, 1-64.
    50. Linnaeus, C. , 1758. Systema Naturae. Regnum Animale. 10th edition, facsimile reprint 1956, British Museum, London, 640 pp.
    51. Moraes, G.J. , Britto, E.P.J. , Mineiro, J. L.deC. , Halliday, B. , 2016. Catalogue of the mite families Ascidae Voigts & Oudemans, Blattisociidae Garman and Melicharidae Hirschmann (Acari: Mesostigmata) . Zootaxa4112(1), 1- 299.
    52. NIBR, 2013. National List of Species of Korea 「Invertebrates-III」 National Institute of Biological Resources, pp. 200-207.
    53. Oudemans, A.C. , 1936. Kritisch Historisch Overzicht der Acarologie, Deerde Gedeelte, 1805-1850. Band A, Acari, Holothyroidea, Mesostigmata. E.J. Brill, Leiden, xx + 430 pp.
    54. Pinchuk, L.M. , 1976. Gamasina Mites of Small Mammals of Dnestr-Prut Region. Akademia Nauk Moldavskoi SSR, Institut Zoologii, Shtiinza, Kishinev, Kishinev, 174 pp [in Russian].
    55. Ryke, P.A.J. , 1961. A review of the genus Asca Von Heyden with descriptions of new species (Acarina: Mesostigmata: Rhodacaridae) . Zoologischer Anzeiger167, 127-135.
    56. Ryke, P.A.J. , 1962. The genus Antennoseius Berles (Acarina: Rhodacaridae). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (Ser. 13) 4, 657-663.
    57. Santos, J.C. , Rueda-Ramirez, D. , Demite, P.R. , Moraes, G.J. , 2018. Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata): zoogeographic analyses based on newly available databases . Zootaxa4377(4), 542-564.
    58. Schweizer, J. , 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen). Parasitiformes Reuter . Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft84, 1-207.
    59. shikawa, K., 1969. Taxonomic investigations on free-living mites in the subaline forest on Shiga Heights IBP area. I. Mesostigmata(Part 1). Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 12, 39-64.
    60. Vitzthum, H.G. , 1929. Ordnung: Milben, Acari. Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas. Band 3, Lief 3 7, 1-112 +12 Pls.
    61. Walter, D.E. , 1988. Nematophagy by soil arthropods from the short grass steppe, Chihuahuan Desert and Rocky Mountains of the Central United States . Agric. Ecosyst. Environ.24, 307-316.
    62. Walter, D.E. , Halliday, R.B. , Lindquist, E.E. , 1993. A review of the genus Asca (Acarina: Ascidae) in Australia, with description of three new leaf-inhabiting species . Invertebrate Taxonomy7, 1327-1347.
    63. Willmann, C. , 1939. Drei neue terricole Acari . Zoologischer Anzeiger125, 244-248.
    64. Willmann, C. , 1949. Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Salzgebietes von Ciechocinek. 1. Milben aus den Salzwiesen und Salzmooren von Ciechocinek an der Weichsel. Veroffentlichungen aus dem Museum fur Natur-, Volker- und Handelskunde in Bremen , Reihe A1, 106-142.
    65. Womersley, H. , 1956. On some new Acarina-Mesostigmata from Australia, New Zealand New Guinea . J. Linn. Soc. London Zool.42, 505-509.