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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.56 No.4 pp.339-343

An Additional Species of Leucospis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Leucospidae), New to South Korea

Chang-Jun Kim, Jongok Lim1, Il-Kwon Kim1*
Division of Gardens and Education, Korea National Arboretum, Gyeonggi 11186, Korea
1Division of Forest Biodiversity, Korea National Arboretum, Gyeonggi 11186, Korea
Corresponding author:
16/06/2017 14/09/2017 02/11/2017


Korean species of Leucospis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Leucospidae) are reviewed, with one newly-recognized species, Leucospis sinensis Walker, 1860. An identification key to the Korean Leucospis species, diagnoses, biological information and photographs of diagnostic characters are provided in the present study.

한국산 밑들이벌속(벌목: 좀벌상과: 밑들이벌과)의 미기록 1종 보고

김 창준, 임 종옥1, 김 일권1*
국립수목원 전시교육연구과
1국립수목원 산림생물조사과


한국산 밑들이벌속의 분류학적 재검토를 수행한 결과, 미기록종인 짧은밑들이벌(Leucospis sinensis Walker, 1860) (신칭)의 국내분포를 처 음으로 보고한다. 한국산 밑들이벌속의 검색표, 식별형질, 생태정보, 주요 형질에 대한 사진을 함께 제시한다.

    Korea National Arboretum

    Leucospidae is a small and rarely collected family within Chalcidoidea, consisting of 148 species in four genera worldwide: Leucospis Fabricius, 1775; Polistomorpha Westwood, 1839; Micrapion Kriechbaumer, 1894; Neleucospis Bouček, 1974. Among them, the genus Leucospis is the largest genus in the family with 121 species worldwide: fourteen from the Eastern Palearctic and twenty-three from Oriental regions (Ye et al., 2017). Up to date only one species, Leucospis japonica Walker, 1871 has been known from South Korea (Paik, 1978).

    Leucospidae can be easily distinguished from other chalcid families by the following characters: hind femur with one or more teeth; prepectus very narrow; tegula elongate, at least two times as long as broad; forewing longitudinally folded; ovipositor exserted and curved upward over metasoma. Also, most species of the family are known to be ectoparasitoids of solitary aculeate hymenopterans (Noyes, 2016; Ye et al., 2017).

    In the present study, Leucospis sinensis Walker is newly recognized from South Korea. A diagnosis, biological information and photographs of the diagnostic characters are provided.

    Materials and Methods

    The terminology used in the present study follows that of Bouček (1974) and Ye et al. (2017). The images were captured with a Leica DFC 495 camera on a Leica M205A Stereozoom stereomicroscope (Leica, Microsystems, Solms, Germany). The multi-stacked pictures were produced using the LAS software (version 4.1.0., Leica Microsystems, Switzerland). The figure plates were prepared using Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Adobe Systems Incorporated, San Jose, United States of America).

    The following abbreviations are used throughout the text: MS = the shortest distance between base of mandible and lower margin of compound eye; OOL = the shortest distance between posterior ocellus and compound eye; POD = posterior ocellus diameter; POL = the shortest distance between posterior ocelli; T1, T2, etc. = metasomal tergites 1, 2, etc; KNA = Korea National Arboretum; NHMUK = Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom.

    All examined specimens have been deposited in Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, South Korea.

    Systematic accounts

    Genus Leucospis Fabricius, 1775

    Leucospis Fabricius, 1775: 361. Type species: Leucospis dorsigera Fabricius, 1775, by monotypy.

    Diagnosis. Clypeus often transverse, its lower margin emarginated and with a median tooth; mandible bare at apex, always with strong lower tooth; maxillary palpi 4-segmented and labial palpi 3-segmented; OOL distinctly longer than POD; scutellum without cross-carina; propodeum often with median carina; hind femur with ventral tooth; hind tibia with outer spur always shorter than inner spur, frequently apex of hind tibia ventrally produced into a spine; female with ovipositor curved upward; male with T2 always transverse.

    Biology. Ectoparasitoids of solitary aculeate Hymenoptera, mostly bees (Bouček, 1974; Ye et al., 2017).

    Distribution. Cosmopolitan.

    Key to the Korean species of Leucospis

    • 1. Hind femur with 12-14 small teeth ventrally, basal tooth larger than following teeth (Fig. 1B); T1 with two ovipositorial furrows (Fig. 1D); ovipositor sheath long-sized, reaching posterior margin of dorsellum (Figs. 1A-D) ····· L. japonica

      • - Hind femur with 4 long and slender teeth, basal tooth smaller than following four teeth (Fig. 2A); T1 with smooth and weak median furrow (Fig. 2C); ovipositor sheath medium-sized, reaching only 0.8 length of T5 (Figs. 2B-C) ·········································································· L. sinensis

    Leucospis japonica Walker, 1871 밑들이벌 (Figs. 1A-D, 3A-B, 4A-C)

    Leucospis japonica Walker, 1871: 56.

    Leucospis exornata Walker, 1871: 57. Synonymized by Bouček (1974) [examined].

    Leucospis japonica var. formosana Strand, 1911: 98. Synonymized by Bouček (1974).

    Leucospis orientalis Weld, 1922: 28. Synonymized by Bouček (1974).

    Diagnosis of female. Body length 11.0-12.8 mm. Body mainly black, except scape yellow. Pronotum with two yellow transverse stripe. Mesoscutum with a pair of yellow oblique band posterolaterally. Mesoscutellum yellow transverse band posteriorly. Hind coxa yellow dorsally; hind femur yellow band sub-basally; wings brown. T1 yellow transverse band sub-medially; T5 broad yellow transverse band posteriorly; epipygium with a pair of yellow small spots posterolaterally. Ratio of MS: OOL: POD: POL = 23: 25: 13: 35. Propodeum raised medially and emarginated posteriorly; median carina weak. Hind femur with 12-14 teeth ventrally, basal one largest. Hind tibia with a spine ventroapically. T1 with two ovipositorial furrows; ovipositor sheath long-sized, reaching posterior margin of dorsellum.

    Type material examined. Lectotype of Leucospis exornata, ♀ (NHMUK), “[CHINA], Hong Kong”, “B.M. Type Hym. 5.82”, NHMUK010370219, designated by Bouček (1974).

    Additional material examined. SOUTH KOREA: 2♀♀, Daeti-gol, Yonghwa-ri, Ilweol-myeon, Yeongyang-gun, Gyeongsangbuk- do, Alt. 581 m, 36°49'25.4"N, 129°06'44.7"E, 09.VII.2013, J.O. Lim, J.S. Lim, S.M. Oh & G.H. Go leg. (KNA); 2♀♀, Namsan-ri, Gakbuk-myeon, Cheongdo-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 35°41'34.0"N, 128°34'09.6"E, 31.VII-21.VIII.2017, J.W. Lee (KNA); 1♀, Soheul-eup, Pocheon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 37°45'09.6"N, 127°09'04"E, 12-30.VI.2017, J.W. Nam, M.H. Kim & M.C. Kim leg. (KNA).

    Biology. Parasitoids of Megachile disjunctiformis Cockerell, M. nipponica Cockerell, M. sculpturalis Smith, Osmia excavata Alfken and O. taurus Smith (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae); Sceliphron inflexam Sickmann and Isodontia nigella (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Sphecidae); Anterhynchium flavopunctatum (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Vespidae: Eumeninae) (Bouček, 1974).

    Distribution. China, India, Japan, Nepal, Russia, South Korea.

    Leucospis sinensis Walker, 1860 짧은밑들이벌 (신칭) (Figs. 2A-F, 3C-D)

    Leucospis sinensis Walker, 1860: 18 [examined].

    Leucaspis okinawensis Matsumura, 1912: 164. Synonymized by Bouček (1974).

    Leucospis fuliginosa Weld, 1922: 18. Synonymized by Bouček (1974).

    Diagnosis of female. Body length 14.1 mm. Body mainly black, except scape partly yellow. Pronotum with two long yellow to reddish brown transverse stripe. Mesoscutum with a pair of brown oblique band posterolaterally. Mesoscutellum yellowish brown to brown. Propodeum with yellow spot posteromedially; metapleuron partly brown. Hind coxa reddish brown apically; hind femur two yellow band ventrobasally and dorsoapically. Wings brown. T1 broad yellow transverse band posteriorly; T5 broad yellow transverse band posteriorly. Ratio of MS: OOL: POD: POL = 22: 25: 16: 42. Propodeum raised medially; median carina weak. Hind femur with nine teeth ventrally. Hind tibia with a spine ventroapically. T5 and T6 with a ovipositorial furrow; T1 with a smooth and weak median furrow; ovipositor sheath medium-sized, reaching 0.8 length of T5.

    Type material examined. Lectotype, ♀ (NHMUK), “CHINA, Shanghai, Zi-ka-wei”, “B.M. Type Hym. 5.81”, “L. sinensis Walker”, “Lectotype”, NHMUK010370188, designated by Bouček (1974).

    Additional material examined. SOUTH KOREA: 1♀, Korea National Arboretum, Gwangneung, Pocheon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 15-31.VII.2015 (Malaise trap), I.K. Kim leg. (KNA).

    Biology. Parasitoids of Sphex nigellus Smith (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Sphecidae) (Bouček, 1974).

    Distribution. South Korea (new record), China, Japan.

    Remarks. In a female from South Korea, the mesoscutellum is uniformly yellowish brown to brown (mesoscutellum black with curved reddish brown band posteriorly in the holotype).


    The authors thank to Dr. Natalie Dale-Skey Papilloud (The Natural History Museum, London, UK) for providing photos of the lectotypes of L. exornata Walker (=L. japonica) and L. sinensis Walker. Also, special thanks go to Park, Hyeon Kyu and Lee, Hyun Mi for providing of the great images of ovipositing L. japonica. This work was supported by Korea National Arboretum (KNA) of the Republic of Korea (as Project no. KNA1-1-15, 14-3).


    Leucospis japonica Walker, 1871, female. A, Habitus in lateral view; B, Hind coxa and tibia, outer; C, Head and pronotum in dorsal view; D, Metasoma in dorsal view.


    Leucospis sinensis Walker, 1860, female. A, Hind coxa and tibia, outer; B, Habitus in lateral view; C, Metasoma in dorsal view; D, Head in frontal view; E, Head and pronotum in dorsal view; F, Mesosoma in dorsal view.


    Lectotype of L. exornata (= japonica), female (A and B) and Leucospis sinensis, female (C and D). A and C, Habitus in lateral view; B and D, Habitus in dorsal view.


    Oviposition of Leucospis japonica. A and C, Ovipositing into the nest of a megachilid species; B, Ovipositing into the nest of a sphecid species.


    1. Bouček Z. (1974) A revision of the Leucospidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of the world. , Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist., ; pp.1-241
    2. Noyes J.S. (2016) Universal Chalcidoidea Database.,
    3. Paik J.C. (1978) A list of Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera from Korea. , Korean J. Plant Pro., Vol.17 (3) ; pp.167-185
    4. Ye X. , van Achterberg C. , Yue Q. , Xu Z. (2017) Review of the Chinese Leucospidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). , ZooKeys, Vol.651 ; pp.107-157