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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.56 No.3 pp.283-287

Taxonomy of the Subgenus Parabates Förster of Netelia Gray, 1860 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) from South Korea

Jin-Kyung Choi1,2, Jong-Wook Lee2*
1Department of Life Sciences, the Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK
2Department of Life Sciences, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea
20170302 20170603 20170812


A taxonomic study of South Korean Netelia (Parabates) is presented. Three species are recognized, and one of which [N. (P.) nigricarpus] is reported for the first time from South Korea. Diagnoses and photographs of the known species are provided.

한국산 애자루맵시벌아속 (벌목: 맵시벌과: 뭉툭맵시벌아과)의 분류

최 진경1,2, 이 종욱2*
2영남대학교 생명과학과


한국산 자루맵시벌속(Genus Netelia Gray)의 12개 아속 중 하나 인, 애자루맵시벌아속의 분류학적 연구를 수행하였으며, 그 결과로 1미기록 종[Netelia (Parabates) nigricarpus (Thomson, 1888) (검은점애자루맵시벌: 신칭)]을 국내에 처음 보고한다. 애자루맵시벌아속의 3종에 대한 식별 형질과 외형 사진을 제공한다.

    National Research Foundation of Korea

    The subgenus ParabatesFörster, 1869 is one of 12 subgenera of the genus Netelia belonging to the subfamily Tryphoninae. Parabates is a small subgenus with only six species worldwide: three from the Palaearctic, two from the Nearctic and two from the Oriental regions (Yu et al., 2016). It was originally described as a genus by Förster (1869) based on Parabatus nigricarpus.

    In South Korea, Lee and Cha (1996, 2000) reported N. (P.) fusca Konishi and N. (P.) ishiharai Uchida. In the present study, an additional, N. (P.) nigricarpus, is for the first time from South Korea. Diagnoses and photographs of the diagnostic characteristics of known species are provided.

    Materials and Methods

    The morphological terminology used in the present study follows that of Gauld (1991). Terminology for the male genitalia follows that of Snodgrass (1941). The genitalia were dissected following Konishi (2005). The heads and mesosoma were measured by the methods of Konishi (1985). The following indices (Gauld and Michell, 1981) were used:

    • Geno-orbital index = maximum breadth of eye in profile / maximum breadth of gena in the same line

    • Nervellar index of hind wing = length of Cu1 between cu-a and M / length of cu-a

    Specimens were examined using a Canon EOS 450D digital camera attached to Helicon Remote (ver. 3.6.6w). Images were stacked using Helicon Focus 6®. Distributional data mainly follow that of Yu et al. (2016). Species descriptions and diagnoses are based on South Korean specimens.

    All examined specimens have been deposited in the Yeungnam University (YNU), Gyeongsan, South Korea. Abbreviations are as follows: HU, Hokkaido University, Faculty of Agriculture, Entomological Institute, Sapporo, Japan; KU, Kyushu University, Entomological Laboratory, Fukuoka, Kyushu, Japan. (A. Nakanishi collection.); ZI, Zoologiska Institutionen, Helgonavägen 3, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden.; GB, Gyeongsangbuk-do; GN, Gyeongsangnam-do; JB, Jollabuk-do; JJ, Jeju-do.

    Taxonomic accounts

    Genus NeteliaGray, 1860 자루맵시벌속

    NeteliaGray, 1860: 341. Type species: Paniscus inquinatusGravenhorst, 1829

    Subgenus ParabatesFörster, 1869 애자루맵시벌아속

    ParabatesFörster, 1869: 150. Type species: Parabatus nigricarpusThomson, 1888, by designation of Enderlein, 1912.

    Parabatus Thomson, 1888: 1194. Type species: Ichneumon virgatus

    OpheltoideusAshmead, 1900: 95. Type species: Opheltoideus johnsoniAshmead, 1900.

    Diagnosis. Occipital carina completely absent. Scutellum with lateral carinae present only on basal. Areolet of fore wing open or closed (most specimens lack vein 3rs-m of fore wing). Ovipositor length 2 times apical height of metasoma. In the basal apodeme of the aedeagus is broadened and its dorsal margin is convex.

    Key to species of South Korean Netelia (Parabates)

    • 1. Subapical portion of dorsal margin of paramere produced to form a flat spine. Pterostigma of fore wing brown to pale yellow. ································································ 2

      • - Paramere without a spine. Pterostigma of fore wing blackish brown (Fig. 2E). ·········································· ·································· N. (P.) nigricarpus (Thomson)

    • 2. Vein Cu-a interstitial of vein Rs+M (Fig. 1A). Pterostigma of fore wing brown. Spine of paramere small and subtriangular in lateral view. ········N. (P.) fusca Konishi

      • - Vein Cu-a basad of vein Rs+M (Fig. 1D). Pterostigma of fore wing yellow. Spine of paramere long and parallel-sided, with apex rounded, about 2 times as long as wide. ························ N. (P.) ishiharai Uchida

    Netelia (Parabates) fuscaKonishi, 1985 애자루맵시벌 (Fig. 1A-C)

    Netelia (Parabates) fuscaKonishi, 1985: 620. Type: male; type depository: KU.

    Diagnosis. Body length: 8.5 mm; fore wing: 8.0 mm. Head light yellow (Fig. 1B); antenna brown with 40 flagellomere; interocellar area yellow, darker than face; occiput dark brown; geno-orbital index: 1.15. Mesosoma yellow to brown, mesosternum dark brown; mesoscutum yellowish brown with dark brownish stripes (Fig. 1A); legs yellow; stigma of fore wing light brown; vein Cu-a opposite to vein Rs+M; fore wing with areolet incompletely; nervellar index of hind wing: 0.19. Metasoma reddish brown (Fig. 1A); apical margin of paramere rounded (Fig. 1C); subapical portion of dorsal margin of paramere produced, with short spine; penis valve widened toward apex.

    Material examined. [South Korea] [JJ] 1♂, Jeju-si Mt. Hallasan, 2.VI.1968, (YNU).

    Distribution. South Korea, Japan.

    Region. Eastern Palaearctic.

    Netelia (Parabates) ishiharaiUchida, 1953 남방자루맵시벌 (Fig. 1D-F)

    Netelia (Parabates) ishiharaiUchida, 1953: 131. Type: male; type depository: HU.

    Diagnosis. Body length: 6.2-6.5 mm; fore wing: 6.5-7.0 mm. Head yellow (Fig. 1E); antenna brown with 36 flagellomere; interocellar area and occiput yellow; geno-orbital index: 2.4. Mesosoma light yellow (Fig. 1D), mesosternum light yellow; mesoscutum yellow to yellowish brown with light yellowish brown stripes; legs yellow; stigma of fore wing light yellow; vein Cu-a basad of vein Rs+M; fore wing without areolet; nervellar index of hind wing: 0.4. Metasoma yellowish brown; apical margin of paramere rounded (Fig. 1F); subapical portion of dorsal margin of paramere produced, with long spine; penis valve slightly widened toward apex, basal corner pointed.

    Material examined. [South Korea] [GB] 1♀, Mt. Sobaeksan National Park, 31.VII.1988 (YNU); [GN] 1♂, Mt. Jirisan National Park, 23.VII.1988 (YNU); [JB] 1♂, Jirisan National Park Nogodan, 23.VII.1988 (YNU).

    Distribution. South Korea, Japan.

    Region. Eastern Palaearctic, Oriental.

    Netelia (Parabates) nigricarpus (Thomson, 1888) 검은점 애자루맵시벌 (신칭) (Fig. 2)

    Parabatus nigricarpusThomson, 1888: 1196. Type: female; type depository: ZI.

    Paniscus (Parabatus) nigricarpus: Kokujev, 1899: 135.

    Parabatus nigricarpus var. semifuscusStrobl, 1904: 50.

    Diagnosis. Body length: 6.5-7.0 mm; fore wing: 6.3-7.0 mm. Head light yellow (Fig. 2B); antenna brown with 46 flagellomere; interocellar area and occiput dark brown (Fig. 2D); geno-orbital index: 2.7. Mesosoma light yellow (Fig. 2C), mesosternum light yellow; mesoscutum yellow with dark brown stripes; legs yellow; stigma of fore wing dark brown; vein Cu-a opposite to vein Rs+M (Fig. 2E); fore wing without areolet; nervellar index of hind wing: 0.21. Metasoma yellowish brown; apical margin of paramere sinuate (Fig. 2F); subapical portion of dorsal margin of paramere not produced, without spine; penis valve widened toward apex, basal corner pointed.


    Head: face including clypeus 0.85 times as wide as long, the punctures becoming denser laterally; clypeus 2.1 times as wide as long, impunctate, with apical margin truncate (Fig. 2B); temple convex, finely and sparsely punctate; occipital carina absent; lateral ocellus not touching eye; frons and ocellar area polished, impunctate; interocellar area flat; vertex and occiput finely and sparsely punctuate; first flagellomere 1.33 times as long as second one, 4.0 times as long as wide.

    Mesosoma: Mesosoma finely and evenly punctate; mesoscutum 1.2 times as long as wide; notaulus distinct (Fig. 2D), evanescent posteriorly; scutellum 1.3 times as long as distance between the lateral carinae at its base, the lateral carina distinct only on basal half; median portion of propodeum faintly strigate, without sublateral crest. Fore wing without areolet (Fig. 2E); distal hamuli of hind wing with 6. Hind tarsal claw with 7 teeth.

    Metasoma: Metasoma finely and evenly punctate. Apical margin of paramere sinuate (Fig. 2F); subapical portion of dorsal margin of paramere without spine, penis valve widened toward apex.

    Material examined. [South Korea] [GB] 2♂♂, Yeongyanggun Irwol-myeon Mt. Irwolsan, 26.VI-15.VII.2014, H.Y. Han (YNU).

    Additional material examined. [Austria] 1♀, Tirol., Kitzbuhel., 18-29.VIII.62, A.H. Hayes (NHM); [Japan] 1♀, Nagano Pref., Outaki-mura, Mt. Ontake-san, Hakkaisan, 35°5 2′00″N 137°31′28″E, Alt. 1720-1820 m, 6.VIII.2010, K. Watanabe (NHM); [Russia] 1♂, Primorskii krai, Lazovski Zapovednik, c. 170 km, E Vladivostok, Korpad, 43°17′15″N 134°07′10″E, 526 m, Mountain top, M.T. 487, 4-24.VIII.2001, M. Quest (NHM); [Sweden] 1♀, Kivik., 16.VII.1938, D.M.S.P. & J.F.P. (NHM); [United Kingdom] 1♂, England, Smrops, Preston, Montford, IX.1980 (NHM); 1♂, England, Castle Eden Dene, I Co. durham, NZ 427392, Rothamsted light trap, 17.v-29.XII.2004, R. Lamboll & P. Gould (NHM); 1♀, England, Wykeham, SE946863, 29.IV-31.XII.2004, Rothamsted light trap, T. Jackson & P. Gould (NHM); 1♂, British Isles, Capron Coll. (NHM); 1♀, Scotland, Inverpolly, VIII.1980 (NHM).

    Distribution. South Korea (new record), Japan, Armenia, Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom.

    Region. Eastern Palaearctic, Western Palaearctic.

    Remarks.Konishi (1985) mentioned the color variation of Japanese specimens of this which have two pattern specimens of, strongly pigmented specimens and weakly one. South Korean specimens are similar to strongly pigmented specimens of Japan.


    We are deeply grateful to the anonymous reviewers for reviewing this manuscript. We would like to express our sincere thanks to Prof. Konishi from the Ehime University of Japan and Dr. Gavin Broad of the Natural History Museum in London for providing useful comments and allowing us to examine specimens of collection. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1A6A3A03007788) and by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR 201701203).


    Netelia (Parabates) spp. (A-C) Netelia (Parabates) fusca; (D-F) Netelia (Parabates) ishiharai. (A, D) Habitus in lateral view, (B, E) Head in frontal view, (C, F) Male genitalia. Scale bars: 2 mm for A, D; 0.5 mm for B, C, E, F.


    Netelia (Parabates) nigricarpus. (A) Habitus in lateral view, (B) Head in frontal view, (C) Head and mesosoma in lateral view, (D) Head in dorsal view, (E) Wings, (F) Male genitalia. Scale bars: 2 mm for A; 1 mm for E; 0.5 mm for B, C, D, F.


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