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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.56 No.1 pp.69-76
DOI : https://doi.org/10.5656/KSAE.2017.02.1.086

Taxonomic Review of the Psocids (Psocoptera) in Korea

Soysouvanh Pheophanh, Geonho Cho1, Ki-Jeong Hong*
Department of Plant Medicine, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Korea
1Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
Corresponding author:curcul@sunchon.ac.kr
December 1, 2016 February 15, 2017 February 22, 2017

Abstract

The psocids of Korea are reviewed based on museum collections and recently collected material. To date, only 14 species of 7 families in 3 suborders (Trogiomorpha, Troctomorpha and Psocomorpha) of Psocoptera have been recorded. In the present study, 10 additional species belonging to 2 suborders [Troctomorpha] Amphientomidae: Ancylentomus macrourus (Li, 1997); [Psocomorpha] Amphipsocidae: Amphipsocus japonicus (Enderlein, 1906), Caeciliusidae: Valenzuela oyamai (Enderlein, 1906), Paracaecilius japonicus (Enderlein, 1906), Stenopsocidae: Cubipilis aphidiformis (Enderlein, 1906), Stenopsocus immaculatus (Stephens, 1836), Peripsocidae: Peripsocus didymus Roesler, 1939, Psocidae: Amphigerontia anchorae Li, 2002, Psococerastis tokyoensis (Enderlein, 1906) and Trichadenopsocus alternatus Li, 2002, were found to occur in Korea for the first time. Adult morphology, taxonomic diagnosis and photographs of diagnostic characters of the newly recorded species in Korea are provided.


한국산 다듬이벌레목의 분류학적 정리

페오판 소이수반, 조 건호1, 홍 기정*
순천대학교 식물의학과
1서울대학교 농생명공학부

초록

지금까지 한국산 다듬이벌레는 3개 아목(Trogiomorpha, Troctomorpha, Psocomorpha)의 7개 과에서 14종이 알려져 있다. 채집된 재료 를 바탕으로 동정을 실시한 결과, 2개 아목에 속하는 다음과 같은 10종을 추가한다: [Troctomorpha] Amphientomidae: Ancylentomus macrourus (Li, 1997); [Psocomorpha] Amphipsocidae: Amphipsocus japonicus (Enderlein, 1906), Caeciliusidae: Valenzuela oyamai (Enderlein, 1906), Paracaecilius japonicus (Enderlein, 1906), Stenopsocidae: Cubipilis aphidiformis (Enderlein, 1906), Stenopsocus immaculatus (Stephens, 1836), Peripsocidae: Peripsocus didymus Roesler, 1939, Psocidae: Amphigerontia anchorae Li, 2002, Psococerastis tokyoensis (Enderlein, 1906), Trichadenopsocus alternatus Li, 2002. 이 미기록종들에 대한 성충 및 진단형질의 사진을 제공하였다.


    National Institute of Biological Resources

    Barklice or Booklice, commonly called psocids, are small and inconspicuous scavenging insects of the order Psocoptera (Mockford, 1989). They feed on fungi, algae, lichen, and organics like detritivore, and some are treated as polyphagous pest of stored food products worldwide (Green and Turner, 2005). The psocids usually overlooked by the researchers despite its relative diversity (Mockford, 1989). Recently many of them have been described, more than 5,500 species in three suborders (Li, 2002; Lienhard and Smithers, 2002; Yoshizawa, 2002). In Korea, only 14 species have been recorded so far (Hong and Woo, 1992; Park and Lee, 2014).

    In this study, specimens from recent field work and material in museum collections were examined to investigate the taxonomy of Korean Psocoptera. This paper reports 10 species new to Korea and provides the checklist of Korean psocoptera with diagnosis and some biological information such as distribution.

    Materials and Methods

    Most specimens were collected by beating and were stored in 70% or 95% ethanol after collection for subsequent slide mounting and identification. Each specimen was permanently mounted on microscopic slide following slide mounting methods for psyllids and thrips with some modification (Anonymous, 2009; Hollis, 2004). Material was examined and deposited in Department of Plant Medicine, Suncheon National University, Suncheon, Korea (SCN). The abbreviations used in this study are as follows: CN (Chungnam province), GG (Gyeonggi province), GW (Gangwon province), JJ (Jeju province), JN (Jeonnam province).

    The list is arranged alphabetically using the classification of Smithers (1972).

    Results

    In this paper, we report 10 species of Psocoptera new to Korea (Table 2) and previously reported 14 species belonging to 3 suborders are also presented (Table 1).

    Suborder Troctomorpha

    Infraorder Amphientometae

    Family Amphientomidae Smithers, 1972 비늘다듬이벌레과 (신칭)

    Ancylentomus macrourus (Li, 1997) 비늘다듬이벌레(신칭)

    Ancylpsocus macrourus Li, 1997: 388. [TL: China]

    Diagnosis. Body (Fig. 1) dark brown. Head (Fig. 10) brown, antenna 15 segments, lacina with apex divided into a small median and broad tooth. Forewing (Fig. 18) brown, while wing apex light-brown, scale on wing presence. Rs connected to M by across vein. Areola usually long. Cu2 and 1A end in modulus. Epiproct and paraproct with numerous of setae (Fig. 28).

    Materials examined. [GG] 2 exs., Anseong, 26.vii.1991, on Machilus thunbergii, (K.-J. Hong); [CN] 3 exs., Cheonripo Arboretum, Taean, 6.vii.2016 (K.-J. Hong).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), China.

    Suborder Psocomorpha

    Infraorder Caeciliusetae

    Family Amphipsocidae Mockford, 1978 털다듬이벌레과

    Amphipsocus japonicus (Enderlein, 1906) 일본털다듬이벌 레(신칭)

    Dasypsocus japonicaEnderlein, 1906: 251. [TL: Japan]

    Diagnosis. Head and wings are strongly pubescent (Figs. 2 and 11). Forewing (Fig. 19) with pterostigma with strong posterior angle and with a spur vein arising. Vein C thickened in region of pterostigma and anterior margin. Rs an M fused for a short length or meeting in a point, Rs branches long.

    Materials examined. [JN] 5 exs., Hwaeom temple, Gurye, 6.ix.2015 (K.-J. Hong).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Japan.

    Family Caeciliusidae Mockford, 1978 깃털다듬이벌레과 (신칭)

    Valenzuela oyamai (Enderlein, 1906) 밝은깃털다듬이벌레 (신칭)

    Caecilius oyamaiEnderlein, 1906: 252. [TL: Japan]

    Diagnosis. Body (Fig. 3) including wings are dark brown. Forewing (Fig. 20) length 2.5 mm, with three of white small area, margin and veins setose, the hair of the veins in one low. Areola postica free and pterostigma not connect to Rs. Rs and M fused for a length; Cu2 without setae.

    Materials examined. [GW] 3 exs., Chunseong (= Chuncheon), 27.vii.1991 (S.B. Ahn).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Japan, China, Taiwan, Russian Far East.

    Paracaecilius japonicus (Enderlein, 1906) 깃털다듬이벌레 (신칭)

    Caecilius japonicusEnderlein, 1906: 254. [TL: Japan]

    Diagnosis. Body including wings is brownish- yellow (Fig. 4), Head (Fig. 12) brow, eyes dark brown. Forewing (Fig. 21) length 3 mm, pale brownish-yellow; veins brownish-yellow. Pterostigma yellow, hairy, narrow; r1 is not a corner. Veins and margin with the exception of analis 1 row hairy, hairy only the edge with the exception of Costa in the hind wing.

    Materials examined. [JJ], 1 ex., Hamdeok, Jocheon, 14.xii. 1995, on Chinese cabbage (J.Y. Choi); 4 exs., Seogwuipo, 25.ix.1998, on leaf of Citrus unshiu (K.-J. Hong).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), China, Japan, Taiwan.

    Family Stenopsocidae Wong et Thornton, 1968 연문다듬이 벌레과(신칭)

    Cubipilis aphidiformis (Enderlein, 1906) 진디연문다듬이벌 레(신칭)

    Stenopsocus aphidiformisEnderlein, 1906: 249. [TL: Japan]

    Diagnosis. Body in alcohol of this species is characterized by pale yellowish brown (Fig. 5), Head with brown marking around ocilli. Wings transparent. Forewing with pterostigma elongate, little color pattern, Cu2 with setae (Fig. 22).

    Materials examined. [GG] 2 exs., Mt. Taehwa, Docheok, Gwangju, 14.vii.1991 (S.B. Ahn); [GW] 3 exs., Chunseong (= Chuncheon), 27.vii.1991 (S.B. Ahn).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Japan, China, Taiwan, Russian Far East.

    Stenopsocus immaculatus (Stephens, 1836) 투명연문다듬 이벌레(신칭)

    Psocus immaculatusStephens, 1836: 125. [TL: Europe]

    Psocus rufescensStephens, 1836: 125. [TL: Europe]

    Psocus flavescensStephens, 1836: 125. [TL: Europe]

    Psocus venosusStephens, 1836: 121. [TL: Europe]

    Psocus strigosusBurmeister, 1839: 776. [TL: Europe]

    Psocus subfumipennisZetterstedt, 1840: 1053. [TL: Europe]

    Psocus flavicansZetterstedt, 1840: 1054. [TL: Europe]

    Diagnosis. A moderately large barklice (5-6 mm) often with green abdomen (Fig. 6). Head brown with round compound eyes, maxillary palpus long and slender, tip of the distal tarsomere gray, eyes dark (Fig. 13). Areola postica joined to median vein. Forewing without distinct markings. Vein Cu2 setose with short hairs (setae) along vein. Pterostigma elongate, narrow, expanded slightly at pterostigmal crossvein. Cu1a to M crossvein long. Fore wing margin obviously setose for whole length to Cu2 (Fig. 23).

    Materials examined. [GW] 1 ex., Danmok-ryeong, Mt. Jeombong, Jindong-ri, Girin-myeon, Inje-gun, 15.vii.2015, on light (G. Cho); [GN] 1 ex., Naewon temple, Mt. Wonhyo, Yangsan, 11.x.1991 (S.B. Ahn).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Palaearctic.

    Infraorder Homilopsocidea

    Family Peripsocidae Roesler, 1944 창다듬이벌레과(신칭)

    Peripsocus didymusRoesler, 1939 창다듬이벌레(신칭)

    Peripsocus didymusRoesler, 1939: 170. [TL: Germany]

    Peripsocus didymus truncatusBadonnel, 1943: 93. [TL: France]

    Peripsocus didymus silesiacaObr, 1948: 2. [TL: Czechoslovakia (former)]

    Peripsocus truncatusBadonnel et Pearman 1971: 88. [TL: Great Britain]

    Diagnosis. A medium size brown barklice (Fig. 7). Head brown and vertex round (Fig. 14). Forewing uniformly pale brown occasionally with dark mark (Fig. 24). Male phallosome with sclerite arms crossing. Female subgenital plate Y shape, the lobe at the apex of the plate narrows very slightly at the end (Fig. 32). Paraproct semicircle shape, epiproct trapezium shape both are with numerous of setae at posterior (Fig. 29).

    Materials examined. [GG] 12 exs., Sorae Wetlands Ecological Park, Nonhyeon-dong, Namdong-gu, Incheon-si, 03.vii.2015, on Suaeda japonica (G. Cho); [JN] 9 exs., SNU Experiment Forest, Chusan-ri, Oknyong-myeon, Gwangyang-si (35°01'55. 99"N 127°36'17.82"E, 200 m), 19.vi.2015, on Albizia julibrissin (G. Cho).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Japan.

    Infraorder Psocetae

    Family Psocidae Hagen, 1865 다듬이벌레과

    Amphigerontia anchonaeLi, 1989 목서다듬이벌레(신칭)

    Amphigerontia anchonaeLi, 1989: 44. [TL: China]

    Diagnosis. This barklouse is large body size (Fig. 8). Head and compound eyes (Fig. 15) round with brown color. Forewing (Fig. 25) with Rs and M joined by a well-developed cross vein. Discoidal cell narrow, sides nearly paralleled but a little convergent towards distal end. Apex of areola postica longer than the first section of Cu1 between R2+3 and R4+5. Paraproct subtriangular, posterior setae present, epiproct triangular, longer than wide, with setae along sides posterior (Fig. 30). Subgenital plate (Fig. 34) the apex of lobe with setae.

    Materials examined. [JN] 13 exs., Gurye, 18.v.2016, on Osmanthus fragrans (K.-J. Hong).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), China.

    Psococerastis tokyoensis (Enderlein, 1906) 줄다듬이벌레 (신칭)

    Psocus tokyoensisEnderlein, 1906: 245. [TL: Japan]

    Diagnosis. Body (Fig. 9) dark brown, head (Fig. 26) shortly pubescent. Antennae a little longer than fore wing. Forewing (Figs. 2, 3) with basal Sc ending free. Rs an M fused for a length. Paraproct (Fig. 31) short pubescent. Subgenital plate shape T like, lobe at the apex with long setae (Fig. 35).

    Materials examined. [CN] 10 exs., Chollipo Arboretum, Taean, 6.vii.2016 (K.-J. Hong); [JB] 1 ex., Mt. Naejang, Jeongeup, 7.ix.2015, on light (K.-J. Hong).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Japan, Taiwan.

    Trichadenopsocus alternatusLi, 2002 점무늬다듬이벌레 (신칭)

    Trichadenopsocus alternatusLi, 2002: 1491. [TL: China]

    Diagnosis. Body and head brown with large eyes (Fig. 17), Antenna not much longer than forewing. Forewing (Fig. 27) strongly patterned. Areola postica almost triangular shape. Rs and M fused for some distance.

    Materials examined. [GG] 1 ex., Gwangreung (Korea National Arboretum), Pocheon, 12.viii.2014 (K.-J. Hong).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), China.

    Remarks. This species could not support habitus photo, because we found only one specimen and body was damaged.

    Acknowledgment

    We would like to express extreme gratitude to Desley Tree (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Australia) for supported technique of slide mounting. This research was carried out through “The Survey of Korean Indigenous Species” supported by National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR, 2015).

    KSAE-56-69_F1.gif

    Barklice bodies. 1: Ancylentomus macrourus; 2: Amphipsocus japonicas; 3: Valenzuela oyamai; 4: Paracaecilius japonicus; 5: Cubipilis aphidiformis; 6: Stenopsocus immaculatus; 7: Peripsocus didymus; 8: Amphigerontia anchorae; 9: Psococerastis tokyoensis.

    KSAE-56-69_F2.gif

    Barklice heads. 10: Ancylentomus macrourus; 11: Amphipsocus japonicus; 12: Paracaecilius japonicus; 13: Stenopsocus immaculatus; 14: Peripsocus didymus; 15: Amphigerontia anchorae; 16: Psococerastis tokyoensis; 17. Trichadenopsocus alternatus.

    KSAE-56-69_F3.gif

    Barklice forewing. 18: Ancylentomus macrourus; 19: Amphipsocus japonicus; 20: Valenzuela oyamai; 21: Paracaecilius japonicus; 22: Cubipilis aphidiformis; 23: Stenopsocus immaculatus; 24: Peripsocus didymus; 25: Amphigerontia anchorae; 26: Psococerastis tokyoensis; 27. Trichadenopsocus alternatus.

    KSAE-56-69_F4.gif

    Barklice paraproct and epiproct. 28: Ancylentomus macrourus; 29: Peripsocus didymus; 30: Amphigerontia anchorae; 31: Psococerastis tokyoensis.

    KSAE-56-69_F5.gif

    Phallosome of Peripsocus didymus, male.

    KSAE-56-69_F6.gif

    Barklice subgenital plates. 33: Peripsocus didymus; 34: Amphigerontia anchorae; 35: Psococerastis tokyoensis.

    Checklist of Psocoptera in Korea before the present study

    Newly recorded species of Psocoptera in the present study

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