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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.55 No.3 pp.285-291

Discovery of Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a Larval Ectoparasitoid of Citrus Longhorned Beetle in Korea

Moo-Sung Kim, Hye-Lin Lee1, Deok-Seo Ku1, Franck Hérard2, Juli R. Gould3, David W. Williams3, Il-Kwon Kim4, Ki-Jeong Hong*
Department of Plant Medicine, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Jeonnam 57922, Republic of Korea
1The Science Museum of Natural Enemies, Geochang, Gyeongnam 50147, Republic of Korea
2European Biological Control Laboratory, ARS, USDA, 34988 Saint Gély du Fesc cedex, France
3CPHST Otis Laboratory, PPQ, APHIS, USDA, MA 02542, USA
4Division of Forest Biodiversity, Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, Gyeonggi 12001, Korea
April 5, 2016 May 22, 2016 June 12, 2016


Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, which belongs to the Spathius exarator species group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) was found as an ectoparasitoid of the first- and second-instar larvae of the citrus longhorned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Förster) from Gwangneung, Pocheon, Korea. The discovery of this braconid wasp was made during the survey for parasitoids of the Asian and citrus longhorned beetles by using the sentinel log method. We herein describe diagnostic characters of S. ibarakius, including those of the male, and also provide illustrations. In addition, we present a host list of Korean species belong to genus Spathius.

알락하늘소 유충의 외부기생 알락하늘소살이고치벌(Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto)의 발견

김 무성, 이 혜린1, 구 덕서1, Franck Hérard2, Juli R. Gould3, David W. Williams3, 김 일권4, 홍 기정*
순천대학교 식물의학과
2미농무부 유럽생물적방제실험실(프랑스)
3미농무부 동식물위생연구청 식물보호국
4국립수목원 산림생물조사과


Spathius exarator의 종 그룹에 속하는 S. ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto가 한반도에서 알락하늘소(Anoplophora chinensis)의 1령과 2령 유충에 외부기생하는 것으로 확인되었다. 산란유인목을 이용하여 유리알락하늘소와 알락하늘소의 기생봉을 탐색하는 과정에서 이 고치벌이 발견 되었다. 이 고치벌의 진단형질과 수컷의 특징, 삽화 및 한반도에 분포하는 종들의 기주목록을 함께 제공하였다.


    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) has been accidentally introduced into North America (Haack et al., 1997), and together with citrus longhorned beetle (CLB) A. chinensis (Förster) (including the form malasiaca) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) were also unintentionally introduced into Europe from Northeastern Asia (Dauber & Mitter, 2001; Colombo & Limonta, 2001). Both insect pests are considered as serious threats to the urban and natural forests in North America and Europe (Haack et al., 2010). Since 1996, the U.S. government has been pursuing ecological surveys in Asian countries (Smith et al., 2001, 2004, 2007; Williams et al., 2004) and an eradication program against the pest, which has to date established populations in five states, and the beetle has also established in one province in Canada. In conjunction with the eradication program, biological control studies were initiated in order to find, identify, and evaluate parasitoids that could successfully control these longhorned beetles (Hérard et al., 2003, 2004).

    In 2013 and 2014, within the native geographical range of both longhorned beetles, explorations for natural enemies were initiated in South Korea where ALB and CLB never did undergo serious outbreaks and were thought to be controlled naturally as proposed by Williams et al. (2004). In 2014, during a field experiment using ALB- and CLB-infested sentinel logs to attract parasitoids, several L1 and L2 CLB larvae were found attacked by braconid larvae that were reared to adult stage. They belonged to genus Spathius. In-depth morphological study consisting of detailed comparisons between Asian Spathius species, led us to the conclusion that the parasitoids were Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, particularly belonging to the Spathius exarator species group according to Nixon (1943). The species group includes more than twenty species from Korea, China, Japan and Russian Far East (Belokobylskij et al., 2012; Tang et al., 2015).

    In the present paper, Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, reared for the first time from CLB hosts, is provided with diagnostic characters including male and illustrated.

    Materials and Methods

    The adult parasitoid specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol, before being mounted on glue boards. The specimens were photographed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; SU-70, Hitachi) in the Korea Basic Science Institute (Busan, South Korea). Measurements and illustrations were made with a Leica MZ 12.5 and Nikon SMZ-10A stereomicroscopes. Measurements correspond to the maximal dimensions of sclerites or appendages; lengths for the mesosoma and metasoma were measured in lateral view. Terminology follows van Achterberg (1993) and Belokobylskij and Maeto (2009). Ratios were calculated from 3 females and 3 males (one female used for SEM photography).

    These voucher specimens were deposited in the Science Museum of Natural Enemies, Geochang, Korea (SMNE), Korea National Arboretum (KNA) and the Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Korea (SCNU).

    Taxonomic accounts

    Family Braonidae Nees, 1811 고치벌과

    Subfamily Doryctinae Förster, 1862 중국고치벌아과

    Genus SpathiusNees, 1819

    Spathius ibarakiusBelokobylskij et Maeto, 2009

    알락하늘소살이고치벌(신칭)(Figs. 1-6)

    Spathius ibarakiusBelokobylskij et Maeto, 2009: 502. (Type locality: Japan, Ibaraki Prefecture)Fig. 2

    Materials examined. 1♀. Gwangneung, Pocheon, Gyeonggi, Korea from Anoplophora chinensis (Fӧrster) in Acer tegmentosum Maxim. pupation 4. IX. 2014. emergence 19. IX. 2014. M. Kim (SCNU); 3♀, ditto, pupation 28. IX. 2014, emergence 13. Ⅹ. 2014. M. Kim (SMNE, SCNU, KNA) (one female used for SEM study, deposited in SMNE); 2♂, ditto, pupation 24. IX. 2014, emergence 30. IX. 2014. M. Kim (SCNU, KNA); 1♂, ditto, pupation 11. IX. 2014, emergence 17. IX. 2014. M. Kim (SCNU).


    Female (Figs. 1-4). Length of body 2.5-3.9 mm; length of fore wing 2.2-3.0 mm. Antennae Slender, filiform, 28-34-segmented, about 1.2-1.4 times as long as body (ovipositor excluded). Scape 1.4-1.6 times as long as maximum width. Width of head in dorsal view 1.4-1.6 times its median length, 1.1-1.2 times width of mesoscutum. Vertex finely transversely striate (aciculate). Face mostly striate with fine rugosity between striae, except for a smooth on narrow medial vertical area. Epistomal suture distinct and complete. Fore wing 3.2-3.4 times as long as wide, more or less infuscate, with a longitudinal hyaline band medially. Second tergite densely and almost entirely finely granulate-reticulate; anterior half of third tergite distinctly finely granulate-reticulate, smooth in posterior half.

    Male (Fig. 5). Body length 2.1-2.6 mm; fore wing length 1.5-2.0 mm. Antenna filiform, 25-30-segmented, 1.2-1.3 times as long as body. Eye black. Mesosoma sometimes distinctly depressed, its length 1.7-2.0 times maximum width. Length of mesosoma 2.2-2.3 times its height. Petiole (lateral view) weakly curved, its length 2.1-2.5 times maximum width (dorsal view); apical width of tergite 1.3-1.6 times its width at level of spiracles. Median length of second and third tergites combined 1.4-1.5 times basal width of second tergite, 1.1 times their maximum width. Legs partly almost entirely yellow or brownish yellow. Otherwise similar to female.Fig. 3Fig. 4

    Distribution. Korea (new record: Central), China (Heilongjian, Jilin, Zhejiang, Fujian, Hunan, Guizhou, Sichuan), Japan (Honshu, Shikoku).

    Host and biology.Spathius anoplophorae is an ectoparasitoid of the citrus longhorned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Förster) on the Manchurian striped maple, Acer tegmentosum Maxim. Four larvae of A. chinensis in the sentinel logs were parasitized by one or two larvae of S. anoplophorae naturally occurring in the habitat (Fig. 6A, B). Although no larva of A. glabripennis was attacked by S. anoplophorae during summer 2014 in the sentinel logs, additional host specificity testing in the laboratory is necessary before any conclusions is made.

    On the other hand, we have classified host lists of the Korean species belong to genus Spathius with Table 1.

    Pupae of male (n = 3). Exarate pupa, without spinning a cocoon. Legs, wings and antennae are free from the body and the abdomen is moveable, such that the pupa is capable of limited locomotion. Body milky white, eyes dark brown; length 7.8-7.9 mm (Fig. 6C). Pupal period of male was six days.

    Pupae of female (n = 3). Making the cocoon (Fig. 6D). Length 8.2-8.4 mm. Cocoon color dark grayish yellow. Pupal period of female was fifteen days.


    This work was supported by a grant (14-8130-0338-CA) from USDA APHIS PPQ, USA for the “Exploration for Asian Longhorned Beetle and Citrus Longhorned Beetle Parasitoids in South Korea.”


    Habitus of Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, ♀ (lateral view).


    Morphology of Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, ♀. A: five basal segments of antenna; B: radix, scapus, and pedicellus; C: head (frontal view); D: head (lateral view); E: head (dorsal view); F: mesosoma (dorsal view); G: pronotum (dorsal view); H: middle lobe of mesoscutum (dorsal view); I: lateral lobe of mesoscutum (dorsal view).


    Morphology of Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, ♀. A: scutellar sulcus, scutellum, and metanotum (dorsal view); B: side of pronotum (lateral view); C: mesopleuron (lateral view); D: metapleuron (lateral view); E: propodeum (dorsal view); F: hind coxa; G: hind femur; H: apex of hind tibia (inner view); I: apex of hind tibia (outer view).


    Morphology of Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, ♀. A: femur and tibia (lateral view); B: petiole (lateral view); C: petiole (dorsal view); D: metasoma with ovipositor (dorsal view); E: second to fifth tergites (dorsal view); F: second and third tergites (dorsal view).


    Habitus of Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, ♂ (lateral view).


    Larvae and pupae of Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto. A: two larvae of S. ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto developing on a second instar larva of the citrus longhorned beetle; B: fully-grown larva of the parasitoid; C: exarate pupa, male; D: cocoon of S. ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto female.

    Host list of the Korean species belong to genus Spathius (from Belokobylskij et Maeto, 2009 and Tang et al., 2015)


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