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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.54 No.3 pp.263-270

First Report of Larval Damage to Liriope spicata by Mahasena aurea (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in Korea with a Redescription of External Morphology of the Larva and Adult

Seung Jin Roh, Bong-Kyu Byun*
Department of Biological Science and Biotechnology, Hannam University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-811, Korea
Corresponding author:
January 30, 2015 April 28, 2015 June 10, 2015


In this study, one species of the bag moth, Mahasena aurea (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), was found for the first time in Korea as a new insect pest on leaves of Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour. Also, the female larvae and adults of the species were first collected in this country. Larvae, pupae, and adults of both sexes are redescribed with illustrations of all external characteristics including the genitalia of the male.

개맥문동의 새로운 해충 검정주머니나방 (나비목: 주머니나방과) 유충의 발견 및 형태특징 재기재

노 승진, 변 봉규*
한남대학교 생명시스템과학과


개맥문동(Liriope spicata (Thunb.))이 검정주머니나방(Mahasena aurea (Butler))의 새로운 기주식물로 처음으로 확인되었기에 보고 한다. 또한 본 연구를 통해 본 종의 유충과 암컷이 우리나라에서는 처음으로 채집되었다. 이들의 암컷과 수컷에 대한 외부형태적 특징을 재기재함과 동시 에 수컷생식기, 성충, 애벌레, 번데기 등의 특징을 도해하여 제시하였다.

    Hannam University

    Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour. (Liliaceae) has been known as evergreen herbaceous perennial plant, which is one of the medicinal and ornamental plant, and distributed in Korea, Japan and China. Compared with other allied species, Liriope platyphylla F.T. Wang & T. Tang, it has more narrow leaves and small flowers (Lee, 2006).

    The leaves of Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour. grow in cluster around the root and usually become thick like peanuts, having 30-40 cm long leaves with 7 or 11 veins (Lee, 2003). They grows under tree along river (Lee, 2011).

    The larval case of family Psychidae has the various form and size depending on the host plants, including the pieces of leaves, tree-barks and the grasses on the ground. Because of the characteristic of larval case, it can be identified with their shape in genus and species level (Sugimoto, 2009). Mahasena aurea (Butler) is univoltine, making the specific case during the larval period and overwintering as sixth instar larva in Japan. Larvae could be found during June to early August (Saigusa and Sugimoto, 2013). In Korea, the 3rd overwintered larvae begin to feed on buds of the host plant from mid May and then on the leaves until early June. It was recorded as the pest, giving serious damage to Ginkgo biloba L., in Incheon and Seoul in 1994 and 1996 (Lee et al., 1997).

    In Japan, it has been known as harmful for several species of forest trees, hurbs such as mugwort, sorrel, and conifer and was known as severe pest to apple (Saigusa and Sugimoto, 2013). It can be also found in orchard, city park and house garden. In this study, damaging leaves of L. spicata by M. aurea, was found for the first time in Mt Doduck-bong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon in Korea, on 29 June, 2014. The aim of this study is to report the occurrence of this moth species and to re-describe the external morphological characters of adults, and larvae, whic h have not been studied in detail until now from Korea.

    Materials and Methods

    Collecting and rearing the insects

    Totally 24 larvae were collected from the leaves of L. spicata at Mt. Doduck-bong on 29 June, 2014. The larvae were brought to laboratory of Systematic Entomology, Hannam University, Daejeon, and reared in petridishes (10 cm diameter × 4 cm height) providing with the host plant. In order to give the same condition as the field, larvae were reared in the white bucket-type cage (30 cm diameter × 29 cm height) covering with the net (34 cm diameter × 53 cm height) on cage (Fig. 6C). Rearing data was recorded from June 29th to July 25th of 2014 until the last emergence of adults.


    Materials examined in the present study are preserved in the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Hannam University (SELHNU), Daejeon, Korea. The genitalia was dissected and examined after mounting with 80% glycerol solution for identification of the species. The photos of adults and genitalic structures for the species were taken by a digital camera, Pax cam (PAXcamTM Microscope Cameras Co., Chicago) attached on the microscope, Carl Zeiss Axio Imager A1 (Carl Zeiss Ltd., Cambridge).

    Taxonomic accounts

    Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758.

    Family Psychidae Boisduval, 1829: 44.

    Subfamily Oieketicinae Herrich-Schäffer, 1855: 48.

    Genus MahasenaMoore, 1877: 601.

    <Type species: Mahasena andamanaMoore, 1877>

    Mahasena aurea (Butler, 1881) 검정주머니나방 (Figs. 1-5)

    Plateumata aureaButler, 1881: 23. Type locality: Japan.

    Mahasena nitobei: Matsumura, 1931: 1010; Inoue, 1954: 20; Ko, 1969: 314.

    Mahasena aurea: Dierl, 1968: 13; Seino, 1978: 81; Shin et al., 1983: 548; ESA and KSAE, 1994: 322; Lee et al., 1997: 243; Byun et al, 2009: 114; Paek, 2010: 258.

    Adult (Figs. 1, 2). Male. Wingspan 22.5-26.2 mm; length of head and thorax combined 4.4-5.2 mm; length of soaked abdomen excluding genitalia 12.3 mm (intersegmental membranes expanded).

    Coloration and vestiture: Sclerites on head and thorax brown. Head (Fig. 1D) clothed with short dark-brown hairs dorsally and anteriorly. Thoracic notum densely clothed with long dark-brown hairs almost as long as mesoscutum; no sharp markings appearing on notal vestiture. Upperside of wings: ground color brownish between veins and termen margin black scales; generally covered dark-brown scales; scales (Fig. 1B, C) slightly wide, with mainly truncate apical margin usually produced into 2-4 weak rounded laciniation. Hindwing covered with dark-brown scales, basal part a bit longish dark-brown hairs; scales comparatively slender with arrowhead shape. Underside of wings generally clothed dark-brown scales; forewing clothed with similar scales as on upperside. Structure: Head having eyes nearly 1/3 as wide as thorax in dorsal aspect; compound eyes blackish, original form; mouthparts reduced to small labial sclerite holding brown hairs. Ocelli absent. Antenna (Fig. 1E) with basal flagellomeres 24 segmented, pectinated, slightly longer than 1/4 forewing, length of antenna nearly 2.2-3.1 mm, flagellomeres covered with dark-brown scales, anterior pectinations almost identical posterior ones.

    Forewing (Fig. 2A) a bit short and wide, nearly triangular shaped; costa straight, then gently arched beyond 4/5, apex obtuse; posterior margin gently arched, termen approximately 1/2 as long as costa. All veins present; median cell 0.61 times as long as wing, narrower on 2/5 of basal part, then widened distally, anterodistal and posterodistal corner rectangular; R1 and R2 originated at distal 2/5 of costa; R3 long branched with R4; R3, R4 and R5 stalked distal corner of anterior part of the cell; M1 closed to lower distal corner; distal margin of median cell a little bit trianglular; M2+M3 long stalked at posterodistal corner of median cell; CuA1 and CuA2 closed to distal corner; CuP and A1+A2 straight ly reaching to tornus. Hindwing (Fig. 2B) fan shaped, costa gently curved; all veins present; median cell approximately 3/5 length of hindwing posterior portion of the cell much bigger than anterior portion; R1 originated at 1/2 of costa, Rs reaching to wing apex; M1 arising with distal margin of median cell; M2 and M3 stalked at posterodistal corner of cell; CuA1 originating from near end of cell and CuA2 arising from under the corner of the cell respectively (Fig. 2C-E) slightly short, dark-brown on coxae, femora and tibiae, white on tarsi; coxae and femora covered with dark-brown long hairs; tibiae covered with very long dark-brown hairs; tarsi covered with short white hairs; claws reddish brown.

    Male genitalia (Fig. 3). In lateral aspect, dorsum fluent curved dorsally at the middle; saccus very long with 2.6 times longer than the height of ring; valva 1.1 times as long as height of ring; ampulla 0.4 times as long as valva, club-shaped apically; harpe 0.5 times as long as ampulla, hooked apically. In ventral aspect, uncus not represented. Apex of tegument smooth. Valva short and narrow, apical part of valva consisting of narrowly expanded termination. Saccus elongated downwardly. Aedeagus longer than genitalia, short scales apically.

    Female (Fig. 1F, G). Length 10.5–12.3 mm. Coloration: Head with red brown and shiny on vertex. Meso and metanotum with light yellow. Membranous areas of abdomen light brown. Abdomen clothed with a small quantity of light yellowish brown scales; corethrogyne yellowish. Structure: Head small, directly ventral aspect and a surface with rounded on dorsal margin, slightly narrowed at ventral aspect. Forelegs and midlegs each represented by a pair of small tubercles; hindlegs represented by a small expectation to maxilla-labial sclerite.

    Larva (Fig. 5C, D). Length 1.0 mm. Head reddish brown, coronal and epicranial arms brown; dorsal aspect of clypeus and labrum dark brown, ventral aspect of clypeus reddish brown. Dorsal aspect of thorax brown with several black spots. Abdomen paler than thorax, membranous parts and sclerites blackish gray. Thoracic legs pale brown with black markings. A bit scales with grayish white in body.

    Pupae (Fig. 4). Male: Length 1.1-1.3 mm. Blackish brown on head, thorax and abdomen, brown on legs. Body cylindrical; in dorsal aspect slightly concaved at vertex, pronotum slightly arched. Compound eye existed laterally. Labial palpi combined parted medially. Antenna moderately wide and short, voluminous, evenly narrowed to tip. Apex of front coxa a little prominent anteriorly; midlegs are longer than forelegs reaching to apex of forewing closely, hindlegs are hidden by forewings. Forewing moderately wide, comprising 1/3 of pupa, apex of forewing meet in the middle at the top of abdomen. Hindwing narrowed to posterior margin of abdomen, posterior margin of mesonotum in U-shape, gradually narrowed distally, 3/5 as wide as pupa; metanotum greatly swollen. First to 6th abdominal segments are the same thickness, 7th to 9th narrow; 9th abdominal segment slightly rounded. Anal hooked with fairly short. Female: Length 1.9-2.4 mm. Body cylindrical, reddish brown, nearly same width and thickness as 6th abdominal segment, evenly narrowed to tip; abdominal segments slightly tapered in basally. Head very small and round, nearly directed to ventral part. Thorax narrowly condensed, three thoracic segments as long as 1/10 of pupa. Anal part slightly bent.

    Material examined. 6♂, 7♀, Mt. Doduck-bong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 29. VI. 2014 (B.K. Byun and S.J Roh)-coll. SELHNU. Distribution. Korea, Japan, China.

    Host plant. It mainly feeds on broad-leaved trees including Ginkgo biloba L. (Gingkoaceae), Prunus serrulata var. spontanea (Maxim.) E.H.Wilson, Malus asiatica Nakai, Spiraea prunifolia f. simpliciflora Nakai (Rosaceae) etc. (Lee et al., 1997). In this study, L. spicata. is reported for the first time from Korea as a host plant of M. aurea.

    Remarks. Larva of M. aurea built a larval case with the feeding leaves (Fig. 5A, B). In this study, we found that M. aurea made a new type of case, which is modified after the previous type of them. After emergence, female becomes to blackish brown and hardened after 3-5 days. Pupal period was 22 days on average. Out of 13 larvae, 7 females and 6males were emerged in the present study.

    Results and Discussions

    Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour. has been known to use a medicinal plant and ornamental plant. In this study, the damage on the leaves of Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour. by Mahasena aurea (Butler), is reported for the first time from Korea. Also the female of the species were re-described for the first time in this country. It is regarded as the severe pest to Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour., if they are occurred massively, because larva caused a large amount of loss on a forest tree. Therefore pre-investigation and monitoring need to be performed with the occurrence region of this study.


    Feeding habits of M. aurea : A, Feeding on L. spicata ; B, Larvae of M. aurea ; C, Bucket type cage; D-E, Feeding of larvae in rearing cage.


    Adults of M. aurea: A, Male; B, Scales, upperside of forewing; C, Scales, upperside of hindwing; D, Head, frontal view; E, Male, antenna; F, Female, ventral view; G, Female, lateral view.


    Male of M. aurea: A, Venation of forewing; B, Venation of hindwing; C, Foreleg; D, Midleg; E, Hindleg.


    Genitalia of male: A, Ventral view; B, Lateral view; C, Aedeagus.


    Pupae of M. aurea : A, Male, ventral view; B, Male, lateral view; C, Male, dorsal view; D, Female, ventral view; E, Female, lateral view; F, Female, dorsal view.


    Larva and case: A, Female case; B, Male case; C, Larva, dorsal view; D, Larva, lateral view.


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