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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.48 No.2 pp.123-158

실행방식 측면에서 살충제의 신중한 사용에 의한 저항성 발달의 관리


Management of the Development of Insecticide Resistance by Sensible Use of Insecticide, Operational Methods

Bu-Keun Chung, Chung Gyoo Park


  An attempt was made to stimulate future research by providing exemplary information, which would integrate published knowledge to solve specific pest problem caused by resistance. This review was directed to find a way for delaying resistance development with consideration of chemical(s) nature, of mixture, rotation, or mosaics, and of insecticide(s) compatible with the biological agents in integrated pest management (IPM). The application frequency, related to the resistance development, was influenced by insecticide activity from potentiation, residual period, and the vulnerability to resistance development of chemical, with secondary pest. Chemical affected feeding, locomotion, flight, mating, and predator avoidance. Insecticides with negative cross-resistance by the difference of target sites and mode of action would be adapted to mixture, rotation and mosaic. Mixtures for delaying resistance depend on each component killing very high percentage of the insects, considering allele dominance, cross-resistance, and immigration and fitness disadvantage. Potential disadvantages associated with mixtures include disruption of biological control, resistance in secondary pests, selecting very resistant population, and extending cross-resistance range. The rotation would use insecticides in high and low doses, or with different metabolic mechanisms. Mosaic apply insecticides to the different sectors of a grid for highly mobile insects, spray unrelated insecticides to sedentary aphids in different areas, or mix plots of insecticide-treated and untreated rows. On the evolution of pest resistance, selectivity and resistance of parasitoids and predator decreased the number of generations in which pesticide treatment is required and they could be complementary to refuges from pesticides To enhance the viability of parasitoids, the terms on the insecticides selectivity and factors affecting to the selectivity in field were examined. For establishment of resistant parasitoid, migration, survivorship, refuge, alternative pesticides were considered. To use parasitoids under the pressure of pesticides, resistant or tolerant parasitoids were tested, collected, and/or selected. A parasitoid parasitized more successfully in the susceptible host than the resistant. Factors affecting to selective toxicity of predator are mixing mineral oil, application method, insecticide contaminated prey, trait of individual insecticide, sub-lethal doses, and the developmental stage of predators. To improve the predator/prey ratio in field, application time, method, and formulation of pesticide, reducing dose rate, using mulches and weeds, multicropping and managing of surroundings are suggested. Plant resistance, predator activity, selective insect growth regulator, and alternative prey positively contributed to the increase of the ratio. Using selective insecticides or insecticide resistant predator controlled its phytophagous prey mites, kept them below an economic level, increased yield, and reduced the spray number and fruits damaged.